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Thursday, December 8, 2011

The Six Pillars of Iman

The Six Pillars Of Iman

Just as Islam has five pillars (please
recall tohe definitions of Islam and Pillar), so Iman (please recall
the definition of Iman in all of its three necessary components)
also has six pillars, taught to us by the Prophet (saws). These
pillars are:

Belief in Allah;

Belief in the angels;

Belief in the revealed books;

Belief in the commissioned Messengers
(peace be upon them).

Belief in the resurrection and
the events of Qiyamah.

Belief in the predestination by
Allah of all things, both the (seemingly) good and the (seemingly)

The First Pillar

Belief in Allah Most High.

  • It is the foundation of the Islamic
  • It is a basic human need, more
    basic than the need for his provision and sustenance.
  • Acts of worship only become real
    and valid with the feeling and awareness of their Object.
  • supplication
  • love
  • humility
  • fear
  • hope/reliance
  • adoration
  • Differences between the Creator
    and His creation.
  • He is free of any need for others.
  • He is the sole Creator of all
    that which pleases Him (and that which doesn't).
  • Allah has ordered His creation
    and forbidden them only in ways which are in their best interest.
  • He sent the Messengers and the
    books with the truth Ilm-ul-Ghaib.

He alone can guide to Iman. This
is why the people of paradise will say:

[All praise be to Allah who guided
us to this, for we never would have been guided to it if He had
not guided us to it.]

The best worship is insufficient
as gratitude for his bounties and mercies - they always fall short
and we are need of His forgiveness.

No one's works will merit paradise.
There is no contradiction between the Hadith:

None shall enter Paradise by his
actions. and the verse which says:

[These are the people of paradise,
therein forever, a reward for that which they used to do.]

Every human needs Allah's forgiveness
of his sins.

The Second Pillar

Belief in the Angels.

Belief that among Allah's creation
are angels.

Real beings, not illusions or figments
of human imagination.

Created from light.

A Muslim must believe specifically
in all the angels named and/or described in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

Jibreel: in charge of delivering

Mika'il: in charge of bringing the

Israfil: the blower of the horn on

Malik-ul-Maut: the Angel of Death
who takes people's souls at death.

The Noble Recorders: those who record
people's actions.

The Protectors (Al-Mu'aqqibat): who
keep people from death until its decreed time.

Ridhwan: in charge of Paradise.

Malik: in charge of Hell.

Munkar and Nakir: the questioners
in the grave.

The Carriers of the Throne.

Those who record the future of the

Those who enter the Haraam: 70,000
every day.

Those who move about, descending
upon gatherings at which Allah and His Book are mentioned and studied.

Belief in the angels is an integral
part of Iman.

[See 2/285 Al-Baqarah]

Kufr with respect to the angels is

[See 4/136 An-Nisaa]

They are not some metaphysical force
or aspect of the human psyche or self. Deviants have said such things
for many centuries, and it was not a new deviation when it was being
propagated in America during this century.

The Third Pillar

Belief in the Books of Allah.

General belief in the phenomenon
of the sending of books.

Six specific books mentioned in the

As-Suhuf of Ibrahim and Musa.

Az-Zaboor given to Daud.

At-Taurat revealed to Musa.

Al-Injeel revealed to Isa.

Al-Qur'an - the final revelation.

Attributes of the Qur'an:

Flawless and untampered with:

[See 41/42 Fusilat]

The final authority over any remnants
of the previous books.

[See 5/48 Al-Maidah]

A guidance and a mercy.

[See 10/37 Yunus]

The Qur'an must be followed and applied.

[See 6/155 Al-An'aam]

Hadith narrated by Ali:

The Prophet (saws) said: Verily,
there will be fitan. I said: What is the way out of them, Messenger
of Allah? He said: The Book of Allah; in it is news of those who
came before you; news of what is to come after you; the ruling on
that which is between you; it is the decisive criterion, and is
not jest. Whoever leaves it among the arrogant ones will be made
small by Allah; whoever seeks guidance from other than it will be
sent astray by Allah. It is the mighty rope of Allah, the Wise Reminder,
and the Straight Path. With it, inclinations do not deviate nor
tongues become confused. Scholars are never satiated with it; it
never becomes tiresome with repetition; its wonders never diminish.
... Whoever speaks by it is truthful; whoever applies it is rewarded;
whoever judges by it is just; and whoever calls to it is guided
to a straight path.

- Narrated by At-Tirmidhi [Its chain
is not strong because of two unknown narrators.]

The Fourth Pillar

Belief in the prophets, prayers and
salutations of Allah be upon them.

Belief in the process of prophethood.

Allah in His wisdom did not neglect
His creation.

Prophets sent to guide us in this
life and the next.

Specific belief in the 25 prophets
named in the Qur'an: (1)Adam, (2)Nuh, (3)Idris, (4)Saleh, (5)Ibrahim,
(6)Hud, (7)Lut, (8)Yunus, (9)Isma'il, (10)Is-haq, (11)Ya'qub, (12)Yusuf,
(13)Ayub, (14)Shu'aib, (15)Musa, (16)Harun, (17)Alyas', (18)Dhu
Al-Kifl, (19)Daud, (20)Zakariya, (21)Sulaiman, (22)Ilyas, (23)Yahya,
(24)Isa, and (25)Muhammad, prayers and salutations of Allah be upon
him and upon all the messengers of Allah.

General belief that there are many
other prophets and messengers, but never assuming anything without
knowledge from Allah.

The subject matter of the prophethood.

Warnings and glad tidings.

So the disobedient will have no excuse
before Allah. (Prophets sent to every nation.)

Enjoining the worship of Allah and
the avoidance of At-Taghoot (Shaitaan, etc.)

[Study: 4/165, An-Nisaa; 16/36, An-Nahl]

Prophets are the best of the Awliyaa
(Allies) of Allah.

What is wilaya; what it isn't.

Wilaya, Iman, Kufr and Nifaaq are
all variable attributes which can all be present to varying degrees.

The best of Allah allies are the
prophets (a.s.).

The best among the prophets are the

The best among the messengers are
the five firmly intentioned mentioned in the Qur'an.

[See: 42/13, Ash-Shuraa]

The best of the firmly intentioned
is Muhammad (saws).

Attributes of the Prophet Muhammad:

Seal of the prophets; Imam of the
pious; Foremost among the sons of Adam; Imam and Khatib of the prophets
when they assembled; Possessor of the Praiseworthy Position which
all of mankind will wish they had attained (and which is mentioned
in the Du'a of hearing the adhan); Owner of the pool in paradise;
Intercessor for all mankind on the day of Qiyamah.

Allah sent him with the best of the
books and the best of His law. Allah made his nation the best nation
brought forth for mankind. Allah gave him (and us) all of the good
that was given only partially to the previous nations. His nation
is the last in creation, the first in resurrection.

From the moment of his prophethood,
Allah made him the criterion (Al-Farooq) for distinguishing Allah's
allies and their actions from His enemies and their actions: None
can have any relationship to Allah except through belief in the
Prophet (saws) and following what he brought in public and in secret.
Whoever claims love or closeness to Allah while disobeying the message
is actually drawing closer to Sheytan, farther from Allah.

The Fifth Pillar

Belief in the resurrection . Reconstruction
of the body and return of the soul to it. People will come forth
out of their graves like locusts. Faces bent down. Rushing to the

[See 53/76 Al-Qamar; 70/43 Al-Ma'arij;
17/49 Al-Israa; 36/78 Yasin; 20/108 Taha]

The resurrection is of the body and
the soul, not some metaphysical resurrection of the latter.

Twelve verses from the Qur'an which
prove that.

Hadith: The sun will come down toward
the people on the day of Qiyamah until it is only about a mile up.
The people will be in their own perspiration according to their
acts: some of them will be in it up to their ankles, some up to
their groin and others up to their chins, and he pointed to his
mouth. Narrated by Muslim.

A disbeliever once came to the Prophet
(saws) with an old bone, crumbled it with his hand and said: O Muhammad,
will Allah bring this back to life after it has rotted?! The Prophet
said: Yes, Allah will resurrect this and he will cause you to die,
bring you back to life, and put you into the fire of Jahannam!

The Sixth Pillar

Belief In Predestination and Decree

A Muslim believes in Allah's predestination
of all things and events (Qadhaa), His decree (Qadar), His wisdom
in His actions, and His will. Nothing in the universe can occur,
even the voluntary actions of His slaves, except after Allah's knowledge,
and His decree of that event. A Muslim further believes that Allah
is Just in His predestination and His decree, Wise in all of His
actions. His wisdom follows His will: Whatever He wills is, and
whatever He does not will is not. There is no power nor any movement
except by Allah. This is substantiated by the textual and logical
proofs which follow:

Textual Evidence

1) Allah informed us of this in the

[Verily, we have created everything
in (predetermined) measure.] Qur'an 54/49

[And there is nothing whatsoever
but that its reserves are with us, and we do not send it down except
in known measure.] Qur'an 15/21

[No calamity strikes in the earth
nor in your selves but that was in a book since before We created
it (i.e. the event). That is easy for Allah.] Qur'an 57/22

[No calamity strikes except with
the permission of Allah.] Qur'an 64/11

[Say: Nothing will befall us except
what Allah had decreed for us, He is our protecting Ally, and upon
Allah let the believers depend.] Qur'an 9/51

[And with Him are the keys of the
unseen, no one knows them except Him. He knows all that is in the
ocean and on the land. No leaf falls without His knowledge, nor
any particle in the dark recesses of the earth, nor anything green
and fresh or dry and withered but that it is in a clear book.] Qur'an

[This is nothing less than a reminder
to all the worlds. * For whoever among you has an intention to go
straight. * But you will never have this intention unless Allah
so wills, Lord of the worlds.] Qur'an 81/27-29

[Those for whom good has already
been decreed by us will be far removed from it (i.e. hell).] Qur'an

[If only, when you entered your garden,
you had said: (This is only) by the will of Allah. There is no power
except from Allah.] Qur'an 18/39

[Praise be to Allah who guided us
to this, and we would never have attained guidance if Allah had
not guided us.] Qur'an 7/43

2) The Prophet (saws), too, has informed
us about the reality of Allah's predestination and decree in many

Verily, each one of you is formed
in his mother's womb forty days as a drop, then he is something
suspended for a similar period, then he is a piece of flesh like
a chewed piece of meat for another period of forty days, then the
angel is sent to insert the soul. This angel is ordered to record
four things: the sustenance which he will receive during his lifetime,
the length of his life, all actions that he will do, and whether
he will end up miserable (in hell) or joyous (in paradise). I swear
by the One other than whom there is no deity, one of you may do
the works of the people of paradise right up until there is only
an arm's length between him and paradise, but his destiny overtakes
him, so he does the actions of the people of the fire and enters
it. And, verily, one of you may do the works of the people of hell
until there is nothing between them and hell except for one arm's
length, but his destiny overtakes him, and so he does the works
of the people of paradise, and enters it. (Muslim)

Young man, I will teach you some
words: Preserve (your obligations toward) Allah and He will preserve
you. Guard (your obligations toward) Allah, and you will find Him
on your side. When you ask, ask Allah. When you seek aid and succour,
seek it from Allah. And know, that if the entire nation got together
to benefit you in some way, they could never benefit you at all
except for that which Allah had already decreed for you. And, if
they all got together to harm you in some way, they could do you
no harm except for that which Allah had already decreed for you.
The pens have been lifted, and the tablets have dried. (At-Tirmidhi,
and he rated it Sahih.)

The first thing which Allah created
was the pen. Then, He said to it: Write. It asked: My Lord, what
should I write? He said: Write the proportions of all things up
until the Hour. (Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, and it is hassan.)

Adam disputed with Musa. Musa said
to Adam: O, Adam, you are the father of the human race, Allah created
you with His hand, and blew into you of His spirit, and made His
angels prostrate to you, why did you expel yourself and us from
the garden? Adam said to him: You are Musa whom Allah favoured with
His speech, and wrote for you the Taurah with His hand, so (tell
me) by how many years before my creation did you find it written
about me: [... then Adam disobeyed his Lord and got lost.] (Qur'an
20:121)? Musa said: By forty years. Then, Adam said: So how do you
blame me for something which Allah had decreed for me before my
creation by forty years? The Prophet said: And so, Adam defeated
Musa in the dispute.

Iman (faith) is to believe in Allah,
His angels, His revealed books, His messengers, the last day, and
the predestination of all things both (those which appear) good
and (those which appear) bad. (Muslim)

Act, for each of you will find easy
that for which he was created. (Muslim)

Verily, oaths do not change destiny.

O, Abdullah ibn Qais, should I not
teach you a word which is one of the treasures of paradise? (It
is to say): There is no movement nor any power except from Allah.

Someone said: That which Allah wants
and you want. To which the Prophet (saws) replied: That which Allah
alone wants. (An-Nasaa'i, and he rated it sahih)

3) Millions of people from the nation
of Muhammad (saws) have believed in Allah's predestination and decree
of all things and events including its scholars, righteous ones
and others. They all believed too in His wisdom and His will and
that everything is known to Allah in advance of its occurrence,
and only takes place by His decree. Nothing can take place anywhere
in His kingdom except for that which He wills. What He wills is,
and what He does not will is not. The pen has already recorded the
destinies of all things up to the establishment of the hour.

Evidence Of Reason

1) Reason does not reject the idea
of predestination and decree and of Allah's wisdom and His will.
Just the opposite, reason demands that this is the case without
doubt because of the clear evidences of it in the universe around

2) Belief in Allah and in his perfect
might and power demands the belief in His predestination and His
decree, His wisdom and His will.

3) An architect is able to make drawings
for a huge building on a piece of paper. He determines the time
in which it will be built, and then works at the execution of his
plan, bringing the reality of the building from the paper to reality
in the time set for its accomplishment, and in accordance with what
he drew on the paper, neither more nor less. This being the case
for a human, how could anyone reject the fact that Allah has set
the proportions of all things from now until the hour? And then,
due to the perfection of His knowledge and His power, He brings
about those assigned proportions just as He had pre-set them in
terms of quantity, nature, time, and place. There is no reason to
reject these facts once we know that Allah is capable of all things!

The Affirmation Of Allah's Characteristics
(Without Negation, Analogy, Distortion Or Speculation)

The Author: Part of the belief in
Allah is the belief in all that with which He has described Himself
in His Book or with which His Prophet (saws) has described Him without
any distortion, negation, speculation (as to the exact nature of
these attributes), nor analogy (i.e. between Allah's attributes
and those of His creation bearing the same names).

This section is a more detailed explanation
of the first pillar of Iman: belief in Allah Most High. This is,
of course the most fundamental principle in Islam, and the foundation
of all other principles of belief and action.

Distortion (At-Tahreef).

Distortion of the Names and Attributes
themselves (i.e. the words) and (b) Distortion of their meanings.


The Jahmiy (follower of the deviations
of Al-Jahm ibn Safwan) negates Allah's statement about himself that
he sat on the throne by adding an extra letter to the word in the

[Istawaa 'alaa al-'arsh] ==> [Istawlaa
'alaa al-'arsh]

The innovators who changed the case
of a noun in the Qur'an in an effort to negate Allah's attribute
of speech:

[Wa kallama Allahu Musa takleeman]
==> [Wa kallama Allaha Musa takleeman]

Others distorted meanings of Allah's
attributes without actually changing the words. Examples include
those who said that Allah's anger (u>Ghadhab) means His intention
to punish, His mercy (u>Rahma) means his intention to have mercy,
His hand (u>Yad) is His generosity or His power, etc.

Negation (At-Ta'teel):

The meaning of the word is to leave,
neglect or be done with something, or for something to be unused
and non-functional. The technical meaning here is the negation or
denial of any or all of Allah's Attributes. Negation of Allah's
attributes can be divided into three categories:

Negation of the Exalted Perfection
of Allah Most High via the negation of His Names and Glorious Attributes
such as was done by the Jahmiya and the Mu'tazila.

Negation through negation of appropriate
interaction with Allah and neglect of worship of Him and obedience
to Him, or the association of others with Him in acts of worship
and/or obedience.

Negation of the relationship of the
creation to its Creator, such as the negation of the philosophers
who claimed that this physical universe has no beginning, and that
it has always and will always work according to its own internal
rules. They turn Allah into an essence with no attributes - which
is an impossibility!

Speculation And Analogy (At-Takyeef
Wa At-Tamtheel):

At-Takyeef means attempts to ascribe
a detailed understanding of the exact nature of the various attributes
with which Allah has described Himself. At-Tamtheel means to make
a direct comparison or analogy between one of Allah's attributes
and a human attribute having the same name, such as the comparison
of Isa by the Christians to Allah Most High, or that of Uzair by
the Jews or that of the idols by the polytheists to Allah Most High.
Likewise the Mushabbiha among the Muslims who compare Allah with
His creation by saying that He has a face like our faces, hands
like our hands, hearing and sight like ours, etc.

The author said elsewhere: Rather
[the believers] believe that Allah Most High is not comparable to
anything or anyone else, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing. They
do not negate or deny any of that with which He described Himself,
nor [do they] distort the words out of their proper context. They
do not deviate [with respect to] His Names and His Verses. They
do not seek detailed descriptions of the exact nature of His attributes
without sources of that knowledge, nor compare His attributes with
those of His creation, because there are none comparable to Him,
nor any equal or partner!

Tauhid of Allah's Names and Attributes
means belief in everything which has come in the Qur'an and the
authenticated hadith regarding Allah's attributes with which He
described Himself in the Qur'an, or with which His Prophet (saws)
has described Him. A Muslim must believe in the reality of these
attributes just as they have come in the above sources, without
attempting to analyse the how of any of them, nor to attempt to
represent them with something else, nor to view them as equivalent
to something else, nor to re-interpret them with other than their
apparent meanings in the Arabic language, nor to distort or negate
them maintaining the belief that...

[There is nothing whatsoever similar
to Him, and He is the Hearer, the Seer.] Ash-Shooraa/11

Allah said:

[Say: He is Allah, the One * Allah,
the one sought for all needs, the self-sufficient, the eternal.
* He bears not offspring, nor was He born, * And there exists nothing
comparable to Him.] Qur'an Al-Ikhlaas/all

[And to Allah belong the best of
names, so call Him with them, and leave those who deviate with regard
to His names - they will be fully repaid for all that they used
to do.] As- A'raaf/180

The Position Of Ahlu As-Sunnah With
Regard To Allah's Attributes

The Prophet (saws) said: The best
of generations is my generation. It is followed (in superiority)
by the one which comes after it, then the one which comes after
that, then the one which comes after that.

Ahlu As-Sunna acknowledge and believe
that Allah ta'ala is completely unlike and cannot be compared to
any created being, neither in His essence, His attributes, His actions
or His names. All of His names are glorious, and all of His attributes
are attributes of perfection and absolute greatness. The ultimate
and most concise proof of the position of ahlu as-sunnah is found
in the verse cited earlier, in which Allah says:

[There is nothing whatsoever similar
to Him, and He is the Hearer, the Seer.] Ash-Shooraa/11

This verse contains a negation which
is followed immediately by an affirmation. The fact that Allah negates
the possibility of anything or anyone being comparable or like Him,
and follows that immediately with he affirmation of two of His glorious
names and perfect attributes, puts an absolute end to the confusing
arguments and sophistries of the innovators in the area of Allah's
names/attributes. When one comprehends fully the meaning of this
verse and contemplates it, it is alone is sufficient for an understanding
of this issue. It is further supported by the following verses:

[He knows all that is in front of
them and all that is behind them, and they are incapable of encompassing
Him with their knowledge.] Taha/110

[He knows all that is in front of
them and all that is behind them, and they can encompass nothing
of his knowledge (with their understanding) except what He so wills.]
Al-Baqarah/ 255

The author said elsewhere:

those who used their imaginations,
(2) those who distort meanings through non-apparent interpretation,
and (3) those who postulate ignorance of their meanings on the part
of the Prophet (saws) and the believers.

The imaginers are the philosophers
and those who followed their path among sophists (u>Al-Mutakallimeen)
and Sufis. The essence of their position is that they say: All that
the Prophet (saws) has mentioned to us in the area of belief in
Allah and the last day is just an imaginary conception of the realities
delivered in a form that the masses could benefit from, but which
do not make any of that reality clear or guide the creation to an
understanding of them.

Beyond this, they fall into two groups:
One group says that the Prophet (saws) did not have true knowledge
of these realities, and they say that some of the later philosophers
and spiritual seekers after him have arrived at this knowledge!
They place some of the supposed awliyaa' on a higher lever than
the commissioned messengers! This is the belief of the many of the
sufis and the Shi'a. Another group says that while the Prophet (saws)
had knowledge of these realities, he did not make them clear to
the people. In fact, they claim that he taught them meanings actually
at odds with the realities which he understood because that was
what was beneficial to them. Thus, their argument is that it was
required of the Prophet (saws) to call the people to belief in Allah
having attributes that they could understand, to the resurrection
of our bodies on Qiyama, to eating and drinking in Al-Jannah, not
because these things are real, but because it would not have been
possible to call the people except with such things. Thus they allege
that the Prophet (saws) was ordered to lie to the people for their
own good. As for the practical applications and laws of Islam, they
go two different ways: some accept their obligation upon them, while
others say that they only apply to some people or that they apply
to the common masses, but that certain special individuals become
exempt from their requirements.

Those who distort by allegorical
interpretation say that the Prophet (saws) did not intend, in these
texts dealing with Allah's attributes, that people should believe
untruths; rather, he intended with them certain meanings which,
however, he did not make clear, or did he point them in their direction.
Rather, he wanted them to seek and attempt to know the realities
with their minds, and then to fit the texts through interpretation
to the meanings at which they arrive. In their belief, the teachings
of the Prophet (saws) were nothing more than a test or a requirement
of them to seek to know the truth from other sources, and not from
him (saws).

Those who postulate ignorance (and
there are many of them who claim adherence to the sunnah) claim
that the Prophet (saws) did not know the meanings of the revelations
about Allah's attributes, nor did Jibreel. According to this, the
Prophet (saws) spoke to us with things which he himself did not
understand. They cite Allah's statement that:

[None knows their true meanings (or
interpretation) except Allah.]

This is basically a correct position,
except for the fact that they failed to differentiate between meaning
and interpretation (i.e. tafsir).

No Analogies Or Comparisons Can
Be Made Between Allah Most High And His Creation

Allah Most High said: [So do not
posit similitude's to Allah; Verily Allah knows and you know not.]
An-Nahl/74. Allah ta'ala cannot be compared to any among His creation
in His actions and His attributes, just as He cannot be compared
to any of them in his essence.

This position of the Sunnah and its
followers, is at odds with he deviation of the Mu'tazilah and those
among the Shi'a who imitated them. They make analogies between Allah
and His creation and make Allah comparable to His creation and subject
to the same methods of analysis. Then they proceeded to fabricate
a law from themselves, saying that Allah must do such and such and
must not do such and such.

The Mu'tazilah and those who follow
their way are Mushabbiha in relation to Allah's actions, and Mu'attilah
in relation to His attributes. They reject some of what Allah has
attributed to Himself, and they call that Tauhid; and they have
made Him comparable to His creation in analysis of praiseworthy
and blameworthy actions, calling that justice.

Their justice is a rejection of Allah's
absolute power and control over his creation (the Sixth Pillar of
Iman, above), and is in reality shirk. Their tauhid is deviation
with regard to his names and their rejection or negation (ta'teel).

[And to Allah belong the best of
names, so call Him with them, and leave those who deviate with regard
to His names - they will be fully repaid for all that they used
to do.] As- A'raaf/180

In short, Allah's is the utmost example
(in all of his attributes); comparisons and analogies, either partial
or total, cannot be drawn between Him and His creation.

[And His is the utmost example in
the heavens and the earth, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.] Ar-Rum/27

Thus, any attribute of perfection
or power with which humans can be described, is in its ultimate
meaning, and is most appropriate when applied to Allah, ta'ala.
And any negative attribute or shortcoming which is negated from
humans by way of praise is in its ultimate meaning, and is most
appropriate when applied to Allah ta'ala.

All issues of Allah's attributes
and names must be taken back, both to affirm and deny, to that which
Allah said about Himself, and that which His Prophet (saws) taught
us about Him. These sources cannot be neglected in favour of those
who forge lies about Allah, and speak about Him that which they
know not.

The author: And [Allah is] more truthful
in speech and superior in discourse to his slaves.... This is taken
from the verse:

[Allah! There is no deity but Him.
He will surely bring you all together to the day of Qiyamah; there
is no doubt therein; and who is more truthful in discourse than
Allah?] An-Nisaa/87

Allah's discourse is on the absolute
highest level of truth. Any knowledge which contradicts the discourse
of Allah is falsehood, lies or deception since it contradicts the
ultimate and infallible truth.

The author: Further, His messengers
are truthful and among those who believe as true... Truthfulness
(As-Sidq) means accordance between statement and reality. Those
who believe as true (Musaddiqeen) refers to their complete belief
in the revelations which came to them.

The author: ...This, in contrast
to those who say about Allah that which they know not. This includes
those who speak, based on speculation and their own minds, understandings
and inclinations about Allah: His law, His Deen, His names or His

Allah said:

[Glorified is your Lord, the Lord
of might above that which they attribute to Him. * And peace be
upon the messengers. * And all praise is to Allah, Lord of the worlds.]

Allah Cannot Be Compared To His

The verses quoted previously are
a concise expression of the position of the true worshippers of
Allah in relation to His attributes about which He has informed
us through His Messenger (saws). In the first verse, Allah declares
His perfection and his remoteness from any of the things which humans
attempt to ascribe to him with their minds. Next, He invokes a greeting
upon the commissioned messengers - because of their faithful delivery
of the true teachings about Allah and His attributes. Finally, He
finishes by invoking to Himself Al-Hamd the ultimate praise which
is due only to Him because of His glorious attributes of perfection
and might.

Now, we will take a closer look at
the meaning of the words in the verse.

{Subhaana Rabbika Rabbi Al-'Izzati
'Amma Yasifoon; Wa Salaamun 'Alaa Al-Mursaleen; Wa Al-Hamdu Lillahi
Rabbi Al-Aalameen}


This is a verbal noun derived from
the same root as Tasbeeh which connotes declaration of Allah's freedom
of all defects (and His deanthropomorphism) and His distance from
all that is bad. Prayer has been called Tasbeeh, since this attitude
toward Allah is the heart of all belief and worship.


Strength, power, dominion and control.


The Lord and Cherisher of all of
His creation with a multitude of bounties and provisions.


Greetings (the greetings of peace)
upon the Messengers. It also connotes integrity and freedom from
defects (as opposed to those who speak of Allah as they imagine
Him to be) in their teachings, since Salaama comes from the same


Plural of Rasool (Messenger). The
Messengers are those to whom a law has been revealed from Allah,
and who have been ordered to propagate it.


An expression of praise based on
the good action which the praised one has done by his will and choice,
whether that action has benefited the praiser or others beside him.

The General Meaning of the Three

These verses are a very important
lesson in Tauhid, and an apt closing to Sura As-Saaffaat in which
Allah has declared himself free of any consort, wife, partner, son
or companion. This is so the Muslim may never be unmindful of these
truths, and may place the seal of Tauhid on all of his good actions.
Allah declares Himself free of all of the attributes which have
been ascribed to Him by those who oppose the Messengers or deviate
from their messages - attributes which are not appropriate to His
greatness and perfection. The greeting upon the Messengers which
follows this is because of the complete integrity and reliability
of all that they taught about Allah, Most High. In this, also, is
an indication that just as a Muslim must have a belief in Allah
free from any shortcoming or flaw, a Muslim likewise must believe
in the integrity of all of the Messengers in their actions and their
statements. None of the Messengers ever lied about Allah, associated
anything with Him or deceived their nations about Him; they speak
nothing about Him but the truth, may the prayers and peace of Allah
be upon them.

The people of the Sunnah are unanimous
in affirming that the Messengers are infallible in their delivering
of the message. It is impossible that anything could stabilize in
their teaching and practice of the Shariah which is not Allah's
ruling. It is obligatory to believe all that of which they have
informed us and to obey them in that which they have ordered and
forbidden. Although a Muslim commits sins (and does not thereby
cease being a Muslim), they are not to be accepted from him. Further,
if he repents a true repentance, he may, with Allah's mercy reach
a superior state than the one previous to his sin and repentance.

It has been narrated that the Prophet
(saws) used to recite these three verses just before giving Salaam
in his prayer. It is also narrated as a du'a to be said at the conclusion
of a sitting.

How To Believe In Allah's Names
And Attributes

The Author: Allah, subhaanahu, has
combined in that with which He has described and named Himself negation
(of all faults and negative attributes) and affirmation (of all
attributes of might and perfection). The people of the Sunnah will
turn nowhere away from that which the Messengers have brought. It
is the Straight Path, the path of those upon whom Allah has bestowed
His grace among the prophets, the ever-truthful, ever-faithful disciples,
the martyrs, and all other righteous ones.

Thus, belief in Allah's names and
attributes is based upon two fundamental principles: negation and
affirmation. Negation refers to rejecting with respect to Allah
all attributes which contradict His perfection, including all types
of faults, weaknesses or needs. We reject the idea that Allah could
have any partner or peer. Nor can there be any comparable to Him
in any of his attributes or the rights due to him alone. There are
two types of affirmation: affirmation of general attributes such
as Allah's absolute perfection, majesty, etc; and affirmation of
detailed attributes such as His detailed knowledge of all things,
his decree of all events, His mercy, etc.

Negation (of a negative attribute)
alone, not accompanied by affirmation (of its opposite) is not praise
and is not befitting Allah. Thus, every negation which Allah has
attributed to himself contains and implies the affirmation of its
opposite. Allah's negation of His having any partner or sharing
any common attributes with any of his creation or of anything escaping
His knowledge or of his acting with frivolity or of His forgetting,
becoming tired or being touched by sleep all imply their opposites
among Allah's attributes of perfection.

The Author: The way of life in Allah's
eyes is Islam, and it is the straight path.

Ibn Al-Qayyim said (paraphrased):
The best expression of the meaning of As-Siraat Al-Mustaqeem is
that it is the path which Allah set for his slaves on the tongues
of His messengers, upon them be peace, and made it the path to Him
- there is no other way for them. The straight path is dedicating
all worship solely to Allah, and obedience solely to His messengers
(among men). This then is the guidance, and it is knowledge of the
truth and its application.

The way to Allah is one and no more.
The Straight Path is sometimes attached by possessive to Allah {And
this is my path which is straight}, because He is the one who ordained
it and set it as the way to success for His slaves. Other times
it is so attached to those who follow it, as in Sura Al-Fatiha,
since they are the ones who traverse it.

As-Siraat in the Qur'an is of two
types: spiritual (or abstract) and physical. The spiritual path
is what we have been discussing, and the physical, tangible path
(siraat) is the one which will be placed over the fire of Jahannam
on Qiyamah. The people will pass over this bridge (or fail to) according
to their actions in this life. The degree of their steadfastness
on the metaphysical path while in this life will be directly reflected
in their steadfastness and ability to cross over the physically
real path which leads to Al-Jannah.

{Verily Jahannam is a place of ambush.
* A destination for the transgressors. * Who will remain therein
for ages. * Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink.
* Except for boiling liquid and a liquid dark and murky. * A fitting
recompense. * Verily, they used not to expect any taking of accounts.
* And they arrogantly treated our verses as lies. * And all things
we have recorded in a book. An-Naba'/21-29.

That Muhammed (saws) Is Allah's Messenger

And I bear witness that Muhammad
is Allah's slave and messenger, may Allah's prayers be upon him
and upon his people (Aal) and his companions and Allah's greetings
(or peace) in abundance...

Meaning: I accept and believe in
an absolute fashion that Muhammad is the slave of Allah and His
messenger to all peoples of both men and jinn. He came as a bringer
of glad tidings and a warner, a caller to Allah with His leave and
a bright light of guidance. Thus, it is obligatory to believe him
in each and every issue about which he informed us, whether past,
present or future and to obey him in each and every order and forbiddance
and to follow the law which he brought (Shari'ah) and his path (Sunnah).

The testimony to Muhammad's (saws)
status of slave of Allah and messenger goes hand in hand with the
testimony as to the oneness of Allah, one is of no use without the
other. In so bearing witness, a believer acknowledges the perfect
servitude of Muhammad (saws) to Allah Most High and the completeness
and perfection of his message. In so doing, we acknowledge the complete
example in the person of the Prophet (saws) and that his person,
life and example far exceed every other created being in every aspect
including the law, his devotion to Allah, his character, etc.

[There is for you in Allah's Messenger
a good example for whoever hopes for Allah and the Last Day and
remembers Allah much.] Al-Ahzab 21

Ibn Al-Qayyim said: Just as Muhammad
(saws) was sent with the message intended for every responsible
being in Allah's creation, likewise, his message was general and
inclusive of all issues of life and religion both general principles
and details. Just as no one is outside the scope of his message,
likewise no ruling or judgement of which the nation has a need is
outside the scope of his message or not explained fully by his message.
Ibn Taimia said: The entire Din falls under the two testimonies
since their meaning is that we worship none but Allah and that we
obey his Messenger (saws). The entire religion of Islam consists
of this: worship of Allah by obedience to His messenger. Every issue
which is required or loved by Allah falls under obeying Allah and
His messenger (saws).

The Messengers Are The Best of The
Creation And the Most Truthful

Whoever contemplates that which was
brought by the Prophet (saws) will come to know that it could not
have been delivered except by most knowledgeable and the most truthful
and most righteous of Allah's creation. Such a teaching could not
have come from someone intentionally lying and committing a forgery
against Allah nor from someone ignorant who imagined that Allah
has commissioned him. We know this from the perfection and completeness
of the message of Islam. It guides mankind to that which is most
beneficial to them and makes clear many issues which the human mind
understands in general but is incapable of arriving at its details.
The message contains knowledge at a level of perfection which could
only have come from the All-Knowing and delivered by the most trustworthy
and honest of mankind. And, it contains perfect benefit, good and
guidance of the creation to that which will benefit them and warning
them against that which will harm them that it could only have come
from the Most Merciful, delivered the most compassionate, merciful
and truthful of Allah's creation, Muhammad, may the prayers and
salutations of Allah be upon him.

Once we have understood that Muhammad
(saws) is Allah's messenger by our reason and by the transmitted
evidence which has reached us and then find something in our mind
which is at odds with any part of the message, logic and intellect
demand that we submit the issue of difference between our own thinking
and the message of Muhammad (saws) to the one more knowledgeable
of all such issues. A Muslim would never give his opinion precedence
over any statement of the Prophet (saws), knowing that his own intellect,
no matter how great, falls far short of that of the Prophet (saws)
and that the Prophet (saws) is more knowledgeable of Allah, His
Names and Attributes, His law and of the hereafter.

The difference in knowledge between
the most knowledgeable of the Muslims and the Prophet (saws) is
much greater than the difference between an average man and a master
doctor. When we are sick, we follow the prescriptions of the doctor
even though we know that his medicines often don't help and sometimes
harm and that he makes mistakes. How then could we fail to follow
the prescriptions of the Messenger (saws).

Our lack of knowledge of certain
realities does not affect their reality. All that of which we have
been informed by the Truthful messenger is established whether we
know it or not -- it is not affected by our knowledge of it one
way or the other. All that of which the Prophet (saws) has informed
us is truth regardless of who believed in it and who didn't and
all guidance which the Prophet (saws) delivered is from Allah, regardless
of who obeyed it and who rebelled against it.

What is clear from all this is that
intellect is not a source of establishing the law. Knowledge can
neither give it any attribute nor affect it in any way since knowledge
here only seeks to understand the message of Allah which is not
in need of it in any way. To make this clearer, let us understand
that knowledge is of two types. One type is a condition to the existence
of its subject such as the comprehension of one of us of what we
wish to do before undertaking doing it. The second type is theoretical
knowledge of something which is self-existing and in no need of
anyone's knowledge of it. Examples of this are our knowledge of
the oneness of Allah, the truthfulness of His messenger (saws) and
the perfection of His law. The relationship of the Shariah to our
own knowledge and understanding is along these lines. The Shariah
which Allah sent down to us through His messenger is established
and constant in and of itself, whether we understand it with our
minds or not. It is in no need of our minds or our understanding.
We, on the other hand are in dire need to know it and understand
it with our minds so that we can gain its benefit. Our knowledge
of the Shariah and of Islam will change the nature of our mind and
elevate it to a higher level and ignorance of it will leave us ignorant
and unguided even though none of that will have any effect on the
reality of Allah's Din which is established and unchanging.

That which is known infallibly through
intellectual reasoning is never and can never by in conflict with
the revelation of Muhammad (saws). In all such cases which have
been claimed, we discover that either the narration cited is a forgery,
or its indication of the claimed meaning is ambiguous and unclear.
In such a case, the narration is understood in the way which does
not conflict with reason.


Discussion Of Texts Dealing With
The Attributes Of Allah In Which A Muslim Must Believe

Surah Ikhlas

First: Hadith which reveal the greatness
of this Sura (presented orally).

Allah has described Himself with
certain attributes in this short Sura which is equivalent to one
third of the Qur'an, as the Prophet (saws) said in the hadith. These
attributes are among those in which a Muslim must believe. Allah

[Say: He is Allah, the One * Allah,
the one sought for all needs, the self-sufficient, the eternal.
* He bears not offspring, nor was He born, * And there exists nothing
comparable to Him.] Qur'an Al-Ikhlaas/all

These, then are among the attributes
which a Muslim accepts as they have come in the revelation without
negation, analogy, distortion or speculation. The Prophet (saws)
informed us in a sahih hadith that this one short sura is equivalent
to one third of the Qur'an. This is because all of the knowledge
contained in the Qur'an fits into one of three categories:

Knowledge of the Rulings of the Law
(Shariah): in which is included the science of Fiqh which deals
with Ibadaat (worship), Mu'aamalaat (human interaction) and corollaries
of those two;

Knowledge of the Consequences of
Our Actions: which includes those actions which are the reason for
returns of what their doers deserve, either reward or punishment,
and descriptions of some of the details of the rewards and punishments
in the hereafter;

Knowledge of Tauhid: This is the
most sublime of the three types of knowledge, and includes knowledge
of all that is obligatory upon Allah's slaves in terms of knowledge
of Him and belief.

Sura Al-Ikhlas contains the entire
foundation for this third type of knowledge (and this, and Allah
knows best, is why the Prophet equated it to one third of the Qur'an).
Say, He is Allah, the One, i.e. the completely unique in His greatness
and perfection, the one and only in his majesty, sublimity and grandeur.
This is carried further by the next verse: Allah, the one sought
for all needs, the self-sufficient, the eternal, i.e. Allah is the
Lord whose lordship is absolute, the Great whose greatness is absolute,
the All-Knowing whose knowledge knows no flaw, the absolute Sovereign,
and the Perfect in each and every one of His names and attributes.
Another meaning of As-Samad in this verse is He who is sought and
needed by all creation for all of their needs, wants and aspirations.
Thus the word As-Samad is not only one of Allah's attributes, rather
it includes in its meaning the affirmation of all of Allah's glorious
names and sublime attributes. This is the first and greatest aspect
of the Tauhid of Allah's Names and Attributes: affirmation of all
of His attributes of perfection and greatness.

The second aspect of the Tauhid of
Allah's names and attributes, is negation with respect to Allah
of any progeny, partners or equals. This is found in the next verses:
He bears not offspring, nor was He born, * And there exists nothing
comparable to Him.

The negation of the process of birth
or the betaking of a son is in reality a negation of all types of
shirk. Shirk is much more common among the human race than the claim
of Allah having a son. Both of them entail the belief in another
like unto Allah at least in some aspects. All of this is rejected
by sound reasoning as well as the infallible texts of the revelation.

If this imagined son is considered
equal to Allah, this means the need of each of them for the other,
and that is impossible with respect to Allah, the All-Powerful,
the Self-Sufficient.

If, on the other hand, the son is
less than equal, this indicates that the father sought him to aid
him in something. The fact that all created beings are in absolute
need of their Creator for all needs, and that the Creator is absolutely
self-sufficient and not in need of them for anything negates totally
the concept of father and son with respect to Allah.

Birth is something which occurs not
by the choice of the parents. It is impossible for anything to take
place which is not by the choice and decree of Allah, Most High.

The betaking of a son is resorted
to when one is unable to have their own as a substitute for a natural
offspring. To say that about Allah is even worse, since it indicates
a lack and a need.

This Sura has been called Al-Ikhlas
(i.e., sincerity, completeness of devotion) because it is complete
in its description of the Merciful or because it makes the devotion
of one who reads and practices it complete and free of associations,
either conceptual or practical.

This Sura contains in its meanings
all three types of Tauhid. It deals explicitly with the Tauhid of
Allah's names and attributes; the Tauhid of Allah's lordship is
implicit in its meanings; and the Tauhid of worship and obedience
is an inevitable consequence of the contents of this Sura.

Knowledge Contained In This Sura

The Oneness of Allah Most High;

The complete need of the creation
for Allah, and His absolute lack of any need for them;

A rebuttal of the claim of those
who say that the Qur'an is the words of Muhammad;

Rejection of the claim of the Jews
that Uzair is the son of Allah and that of the Christians that Isa
is His son;

A call to reliance on Allah for all

A call to the worship of Allah alone
and with no partner;

Exaltation of Allah above any resemblance
to His creation;

Details of belief are to be taken
from the Qur'an and the Sunnah only;

A rejection of those who say the
nature and its laws are what direct all events in the universe;

Whoever steadfastly believes in the
Oneness of Allah, that He is As-Samad and that He is the Doer of
whatever He wishes purifies his heart from all contamination of
shirk or attachment to other than Allah Most High; and

This Sura includes the rejection
of all of the various types of associationism. Multiplicity of the
Deity is rejected by the words the One. Allah negates all types
of need for others on His part with the word As-Samad. He negates
any similarity or equality between Creator and creation with the
words He bears not offspring. He negates the possibility of His
coming about at a point in time (Al-Huduth) with the words Nor was
He born. And, finally, he negates the possibility of any others
being at all comparable to Him with the words: And there exists
nothing comparable to Him.

Ayat Al Kursiy

All that with which Allah has described
Himself in Verse255 of Sura Al-Baqarah, the greatest verse in the
Qur'an, also known as the Verse of the Throne (Aayat Al-Kursiy)
is also part of the attributes of Allah in which a Muslim believes.

{Allah. There is no Deity but Him,
the Living, the Ever-Present Sustainer. Drowsiness can never overtake
Him, nor sleep. His is all that is in the heavens and all that is
in the Earth. Who then can intercede in His presence except with
His permission? He knows all that is in front of them and all that
is behind them; they can encompass nothing of His knowledge except
as He wishes. His throne extends over the heavens and the earth;
maintaining them causes Him no fatigue whatsoever; and He is the
High, the Great.} Baqarah/255.

In the famous hadith of Abu Hurayrah,
the Prophet (saws) explains the great power of this verse:

The Prophet (saws) placed me in charge
of the of guarding the Zakat of Ramadan. In the night, an intruder
came and began taking some of the food. I seized him and said: I
will take you to Allah's Messenger (saws) .... He said: When you
go to your bed, read the Verse of the Throne. There will continue
to be a guardian from Allah with you until morning, and no Sheytan
will approach you. [When this was reported to the Prophet,] He said:
He was truthful with you, though he is a liar - that was Sheytan!

Sahih Al-Bukhari/Fadhaa'il Al-Qur'an/10.

who is self-sufficient and absolutely
free of any need for any of his creation and (2) who watches over
all His creation without interruption; He created them, completed
their creation, He provides them sustenance, manages their affairs
and extends to them all that they need. This name includes implicitly
all of Allah's attributes of action (u>As-Sifaat Al-Fi'liya).
This is why it has been narrated that Al-Hayy Al-Qayoom is the greatest
name of Allah which, when du'a is made in this name, it is answered;
i.e. because of Al-Hayy including all of Allah's attributes of His
essence and Al-Qayoom including all of His attributes of action.

Then, Allah expounds upon His attribute
of Al-Qayoom (the Ever-Present Sustainer, and the Self-Sufficient),
by declaring that drowsiness can never overtake him, nor sleep.

After that, Allah mentions the totality
of His dominion over the upper worlds and the lower. Another aspect
of the completeness of His dominion is that none can intercede in
His presence except after His permission. Thus, this verse also
mentions Ash-Shafaa'a, an obligatory part of a Muslim's Aqidah.
It is the intercession which takes place after His permission and
with His pleasure. The Shafaa'a which is rejected, on the other
hand, is that in the beliefs of the Associationists, which is sought
from other than Allah and without His permission. Thus, the completeness
of Allah's Greatness and Dominion means that none can ever intercede
before Him except those to whom He grants permission and that this
permission will only be granted to those with whose actions and
speech Allah is pleased. Allah states in the Qur'an that no intercession
of anyone will be of benefit to the Associationists.

Next, Allah mentions the greatness
of His knowledge, its all-encompassing quality and that nothing
whatsoever is hidden from His knowledge. As for His creation, they
are not capable of encompassing (i.e. comprehending) anything of
His knowledge except to the degree that He so wills. This refers
to the portion of His knowledge in the areas of the Shari'ah, Tauhid
and the question of predetermination which Allah has allowed some
of his creation to have access to and some understanding of. It
is an infinitesimally tiny degree of knowledge compared the knowledge
of the Creator, Most High. Thus, the angels said to Allah after
the discussion about the creation of Adam: Glorified are You! We
have no knowledge except that which You have caused us to know.
(Sura Al-Baqarah).

After this, Allah Most High gave
us a glimpse of His Majesty and Might in a description of His Kursiy,
which is as the footrest of the Throne (Al-Arsh) itself. This Kursiy
encompasses the heavens and the earth and all that is therein. Allah
informs us that he preserves and maintains the heavens and the earth,
keeping them from crashing into each other or shaking apart. He
caused the whole universe to function smoothly according to the
laws which he prescribed for it and in a manner which provides countless
bounties and provisions for His creation. The correct interpretation
here is that Al-Kursiy and Al-Arsh are not the same thing and that,
as the Prophet said in the hadith, the magnitude of the Kursiy in
relation to the Arsh is like the size of a ring cast out into the
desert compared to the whole desert. In spite of this incredible
size of Allah's creation, He is full capable without any hardship
to maintain all of it perfectly from His mighty Arsh to the smallest
cell or atom.

{And he is the High, the Great.}
Allah concluded this mighty verse with these two names of His. Allah
has the attribute of absolute highness and elevation from every
perspective. Elevation of His essence meaning his being far above
His creation mounted on the Throne and elevation of degree meaning
His possession of all attributes of greatness and perfection that
those attributes being in the ultimate and absolute form in relation
to Allah Most High. And Allah is the Great, possessor of absolute
greatness and all perfect attributes of greatness, pride and power.

The Author said elsewhere: It is
mandatory to understand that the upper and the lower worlds, all
of them put together are tiny in relation to the Creator, Most High,
as has been clearly established in the texts of the Qur'an and the
Sunnah. No comparisons whatsoever may be made between the two magnitudes.
The heavens and the earth and all that is therein is, in Allah's
grasp, like nothing more than a mustard seed in the grasp of a human
being. Furthermore, the whole of Allah's creation knows instinctively
to look for their Lord in the upward direction, in contrast to some
of the Associationists or philosophers who have become confused
on this issue. [paraphrased]

Knowledge contained In This Ayat

Assertion of Allah's deity ship.

His oneness in His attribute of deity

Assertion of Allah's attribute of

Assertion of Allah's attributes of
a) self sufficiency and lack of all need for anyone and b) His complete
and total maintenance of and care for His entire creation on a continuous
basis without interruption. (Both concepts are from the term Al-Qayoom.)

Exaltation of Allah (negation) above
any possibility of drowsiness or sleep.

Negation of Allah's ever being incapable
of anything.

Assertion of the absolute and complete
nature of Allah's knowledge and that it encompasses everything in
His creation.

Assertion of the completeness of
Allah's dominion and that to him belongs all that is in the heavens
and the earth both in terms of their original creation and His ownership
of them after than, in which He has no partner or competitor.

His total control over knowledge
of His creation, and that they can never know or comprehend anything
except that which He wills for them.

Assertion of the reality of the intercession
by those to whom Allah grants permission.

Assertion of Allah's attribute of
elevation and that He is above his creation and, obviously, therefore
distinct and separate from it.

Assertion of Allah's will or decree

Rejection of the position of all
of those who claim intercession for idols or others.

Rejection of all those who deny the
absolute nature of Allah's knowledge e.g. that He doesn't know events
until they occur.

That Allah, when he so wishes, grants
to humans some portion of His knowledge, as Allah said:

{We will show them Our signs on the
horizons and in them selves until it becomes clear to them that
it is the Truth. It is not sufficient that your Lord is a witness
over all things?} Fusilat/53

That no human is the true possessor
of anything -- they only possess its use temporarily, and Allah
is the true Owner of all things.

That the most knowledgeable of humans
has been given only a tiny portion of knowledge.

That there are, in the heavens, creations
known only to Allah.

That intercession before Allah is
not something that can be earned or achieved by any human. Rather,
it is only after and by Allah's permission to those with whom he
is pleased.

Allah's Knowledge Encompasses All

{He is the First, the Last, the Uppermost
and the Innermost and He is completely knowledgeable of all things.}

{And place your reliance on the Living,
who never dies, and exalt His praises, and enough is He to be fully
informed of the sins of His slaves.} Al-Furqan/58.

{He is the One who created the heavens
and the earth in Truth; the day He says, Be!, and it is. His Word
is the Truth. His will be the dominion the day the horn will be
blown; Knower of the unseen and the apparent, and He is the Wise,
the Fully-Acquainted (with all things). Al-An'aam/73

The Prophet (saws) has interpreted
the four glorious names of Allah found in the verse from Sura Al-Hadeed
above saying (in some of his Du'a):

You are the First so there is nothing
before you, and You are the last so there is nothing after You,
and you are the Uppermost so there is nothing above You, and You
are the Innermost so there is nothing closer than You.

The common denominator of these four
names is the concept of encompassing. This concept can then be divided
into two categories: encompassing in time and encompassing in space.
With relation to time, Allah is the First before all else no matter
how ancient, and the Last after which there is nothing. With relation
to space, Allah is the Uppermost above all other dominators or mighty
ones; and He is the Innermost beyond which there is nothing. Thus,
the First is Allah's having no beginning, the Last is His eternal
existence, the Uppermost is Allah's elevation above His creation
and His Mightiness, and the Innermost is his closeness (in His knowledge
and power).

Then, Allah said: ...and He is completely
knowledgeable of all things. Allah is all knowing of all that ever
was, all that is now, all that ever will be, and all that would
have been if such-and-such a variable had been different. He knows
all of this about the lower worlds and the upper worlds, about all
apparent and hidden things, about all that is possible, that which
must be and that which cannot be and {...nothing can be hidden from
Him, not even an atom's weight, neither in the heavens nor in the
earth.} Saba/3.

Knowledge Contained In This Ayat

The affirmation of Allah's attribute
of First, and His being before all else.

The affirmation of Allah's eternity,
that He will remain forever, and that nothing is after Him.

The affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Highness and elevation above His creation.

Allah's closeness (with His Knowledge
and Power) and His encompassing of all things.

The perfection of Allah's Knowledge
and that it encompasses all things.

Rejection of the claim that Allah
knows only the generalities in the universe but not every intricate

Rejection of the claims of those
who reject Allah's attribute of Knowledge.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of speech.

Urging to be conscious of Allah in
public and in secret.

In the second verse, Allah orders
us to place our reliance in Him, the Living who never dies. The
meaning of At-Tawakkal is the reliance of the heart on Allah for
the acquiring of all benefit, and the repelling of all harm accompanied
by trust in Allah, and practice of the causes. i.e., Place your
reliance on the Eternal Lord, the Lord and Sovereign of all things,
make Him your sanctuary and refuge, refer all of your affairs to
him, actively seek submission to His Will and Order and then be
steadfast in the face of all that afflicts you in the pursuit thereof,
with a surety of knowledge that He is sufficient for you, He is
your Helper and Ally, and the only One to take you to your goal.

Ibn Al-Qayyim said: The people are
in unanimous agreement that At-Tawakkal in no way conflicts with
the pursuit of the causes of success and that At-Tawakkal is no
valid unless accompanied by pursuit of the causes. Sahl ibn Abdallah
said: Whoever attacks effort and striving has attacked the Sunnah
and whoever attacks At-Tawakkal has attacked Iman (belief), for
At-Tawakkal was the state of the Prophet (saws) and striving and
working was his Sunnah. Therefore, whoever works on (achieving)
his (saws) state, let him beware lest he neglect his (saws) Sunnah.

At-Tawakkal is two types: reliance
on Allah and reliance on other than Allah. Reliance on other than
Allah is three types:

Reliance on other than Allah in affairs
of which none are capable except Allah Most High. Examples include
reliance on the dead and those worshipped besides Allah in issues
of sustenance, achieving benefits or repelling harm. This is major
association (Ash-Shirk Al-Akbar).

Reliance on other than Allah in some
of the apparent causes such as reliance on a ruler in those areas
in which Allah has given him some power such as material wealth,
repelling harm or coming to one's aid in battle. This is a type
of minor association (u>Ash-Shirk Al-Asghar).

Commissioning another person to do
something of which you yourself are capable on your behalf. This
is legitimate in general, but it is not acceptable for him to place
in reliance in that, but rather to maintain his full reliance upon
Allah to make his affairs easier. With this condition, this is part
of the legitimate pursuit of the causes of success.

Ibn Taimia said: The turning away
of the heart from seeking from Allah and placing all hope in Him
leads inevitably to the drifting of the heart away from the worship
of Allah. This is especially so when one places hopes in created
beings and is distracted from placing his hopes in the Creator.
And so, his heart becomes attached to his political power, his armed
forces, his followers, his servants, his Shaikh or others among
those who have either already died, or who will die.

Allah says {And place your reliance
on the Living, who never dies...}. The human heart can never attain
felicity, happiness or experience any true sweetness and peace and
tranquillity except through worship of its Lord, love for Him, and
turning to Him in submission and repentance. Even if one were to
achieve all the sources of pleasure and sweetness from Allah's creation,
but without the supreme pleasure of Iman and Tawakkal, he would
never find peace therein because of the spiritual poverty from which
he would suffer.

Knowledge Contained In This Ayat

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Life. This is one of the attributes of Allah's essence. Allah's
Life is the ultimate and perfect meaning of Life which inevitably
means His eternity. The significance of this attribute here is the
Ever-Living is the one in whom one should place his trust and reliance.

The order to place one's true reliance
in Allah Most High.

Rejection of the claims of those
who reject Allah's attribute of Life.

Allah's Attribute Of Knowledge

One of the attributes with which
Allah has described us is His attribute of knowledge or of knowing.
As with all of Allah's attributes, we accept at face value that
Allah knows since He said He does. Since Allah is totally unlike
any of His creation and there is nothing at all comparable to him,
we know that Allah's knowledge is not like human knowledge which
we know of and can in no way be compared to it. Finally, since that
we know that Allah is the Exalted, Possessor of all attributes of
perfection and might, we know that His knowledge is the ultimate
and perfect meaning of the concept of knowledge.

In this section, We will discuss
four different verses which indicate Allah's attribute of knowledge.

{He is the one who created the heavens
and the earth in six days, then sat on the throne. He knows all
that enters into the earth and all that comes out there from; and
all that descends from the heavens and all that ascends therein.
He is with you wherever you are, and Allah is Seeing of all that
you do.} Hadeed/4

This verse is one of the proofs of
Allah's attribute of knowledge. Allah's knowledge is on of His attributes
of His essence (As-Sifaat Adh-Dhaatiya). Allah's knowledge includes
and encompasses all things. He knows what was, what is, what will
be and what would have been if such-and-such a variable had been

This verse, then affirms Allah's
knowledge. He knows all that enters the earth such as water, treasures,
the dead, seeds, animals, cave creatures, etc.. He knows all that
issues forth from the earth such as plants, minerals, water, steam
and the dead on the day of Qiyamah. Allah knows all that descends
from the heavens such as the angels, rains, heat, cold and calamities.
And He knows all that ascends therein such as the preservers of
people's actions.

Al-Qadariya reject Allah's attribute
of eternal knowledge. They deny Allah's knowledge of events before
they occur. Imam Ahmad said in his rebuttal of this position: If
the Jahmiy says that Allah does not have knowledge he has disbelieved
and if he says that Allah has knowledge that came about at a point
in time he has also disbelieved. This is because, in so doing, he
has claimed that Allah was at some point unknowing until the knowledge
came to him and then He knew. And if he says that Allah possesses
eternal knowledge which is neither created nor did it come about
at a point in time, he has reversed his position and returned to
the position of the people of the Sunnah.

This can even be seen from the standpoint
of logic and sound reasoning as follows: Allah is the Creator of
all things. It is impossible that He could have created and yet
be ignorant of them. This is because creating of something can only
be an act of will. This will necessitates a conception of what is
to be created, and this conception necessitates His knowledge of
what he created. Secondly, if it is said that created beings possess
some forms of knowledge, then this knowledge could only have come
from their Creator. It is not possible that the creator of knowledge
could Himself be without it. Rather, Allah's is the most sublime
analogy, and He is no way equal or comparable to His creation. In
fact any positive attribute with which Allah's creation are praised
has its perfection and ultimate form in the Creator Himself, exalted
his He. And any negative attribute with which Allah's creation are
praised by its denial, is more deservedly and more perfectly negated
in the case of the Creator Most High.

Knowledge Contained In This Ayat

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of knowledge or knowing.

Rejection of the position of Al-Qadariya
in the question of Allah's knowledge.

Allah's knowledge includes and encompasses
all things - nothing whatsoever is hidden from Him.

Rejection of the position of those
who claim that Allah knows only the generalities and not the details
of events in the universe.

Proof of Allah's elevation above
His creation.

Allah's absolute capability and power
to do all things.

An urging to be conscious of Allah
at all times and to beware of His laws and boundaries.

Proof of the non-literal or general
with-ness of Allah with His creation (Al-Maa'iya Al-Amma).

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Seeing.

Evidence of resurrection of the dead,
taking of accounts, and rewards and punishments according to one's
actions in this life.

{And with Him are the keys to the
unseen; none know them except Him. He knows all that is in the land
and in the sea. No single leaf falls without His knowledge, nor
any seed (or particle) in the dark recesses of the earth, nor any
moist thing or dry thing - all of that is in a clear book.} 59/6.

{Allah knows what every female carries,
that which the womb absorbs and that which increases. Everything
is with Him in precise proportion.} 8/13.

The verse about the keys of the unseen
is one of the greatest verses in the Qur'an which deals in detail
with Allah's all-encompassing knowledge. The meaning is that with
Allah Most High alone are the stores of the unseen or the keys thereto.
He is the one who has encompassed all with His knowledge - all beside
him are ignorant and know nothing whatsoever of the unseen except
that which Allah gives to them. Al-Mannawiy said: Thus, whoever
claims for himself knowledge of any of the unseen has entered kufr.
The Prophet (saws) said:

The Keys of the Unseen are five:
Very Allah possess knowledge of the Hour; He sends down the rain;
He knows what is in the wombs; no soul knows what it will earn tomorrow;
and no soul knows in which land it will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing,

In the second verse, Allah tells
us that no conception can take place nor any birth without His knowledge.
He knows on what day any female will conceive and on what day (and
if) she will give birth. His knowledge also includes what is in
the womb - whether male or female, whole or deformed, what provision
they will obtain while in this life and whether of the people of
paradise or of the people of hell-fire.

Knowledge Contained In These Verses

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of knowledge.

Proof of the reality of the Preserved
Tablet (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfoodh).

Evidence of Allah's greatness in
His sublime attributes.

That the Preserved Tablet is a record
of all things.

That Allah is in full knowledge of
the seen and the unseen, the known and the unknown and of all things
in all times and places no single thing of any kind is hidden from
His knowledge.

Rejection of the position of those
who believe that the Prophet (saws) was a knower of the unseen.

In this verse is the knowledge which
totally rejects the lies of the sorcerers, fortune tellers, astrologers
and the like who make claims to things which are not within their
ability or their knowledge.

A reminder to all responsible creatures
of Allah (Mukallafoon) and a warning not to be unmindful of their
actions and conditions as they relate to rewards and punishments.

It is understood from this verse
that all of the information in the lands and the sea are tiny in
comparison to the whole meaning of the Keys of the Unseen of which
Allah is all-knowing.

That Allah alone knows what the wombs

{Allah made the Ka'abah - the Sacred
House - a sanctuary (or a sustenance or support) for the people
and (likewise) the forbidden month, the sacrificial animals and
the (special) collars (that mark them). That is so you may know
that Allah knows all that is in the heavens and the earth and that
Allah is all-knowing of all things.} 5/97

That is so you may know... refers
back to Allah's acts expressed in the first part of the verse, or
to the meanings in the verses before this in the Sura or to an omitted
phrase, the meaning being: He did that in order that you may know...
i.e. that you may know that Allah's power and knowledge are perfect,
and He is capable of all things. His knowledge and power includes
all things, including the acts of His slaves. Whenever He wills
to do anything, He does it with no opposition and none who can prevent
Him. All things in the creation are under the force of His absolute
power and will, and nothing is outside of His knowledge.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Allah's absolute knowledge and His
absolute capability, power and control.

Proof of the Tauhid of Deityship
(Tauhid Al-Uluhiya).

Guidance to contemplation and the
seeking of beneficial knowledge.

Fear of Allah, the Capable of all

Rejection of the position of Al-Qadariya
who claim that the actions of people do not fall under Allah's Qudra
(power and decree).

Proof of Allah's attribute of creation.

That Allah's slaves do not truly
conceive of His greatness. (See, Sura Al-An'aam (6), verse 91.)
If they did, they could never commit acts of disobedience knowing
that He could destroy them for it in an instant.

Allah's immense patience, compassion
and forbearance with the disbelievers and the disobedient believers.
(Otherwise, He would destroy them immediately and not give them
more and more chances to go right.)

Allah's Will

Allah says, quoting the man speaking
to the one with the great garden:

{Rather He is Allah, my Lord, and
I will associate no one with my Lord. And, if only, when you entered
your garden, you had said: That which Allah wills; there is no power
except by Allah, if you see me as less than you in wealth and children.}

In this verse, and others like it,
Allah affirms the reality of His absolute will. Allah's will is
of two types:

Iradat Allah Al-Kauniya Al-Qadariya:
This is His will as related to His decree, which we have already
discussed. It is His determination of all things and events. This
will must be, and nothing whatsoever can alter it, change it, or
prevent its coming about. The decree of Allah contains both human
actions which are in accordance to Allah's Shariah and things which
are in violation of it. The will referred to in the above verse
is of this type.

Iradat Allah Ad-Deeniya Ash-Shar'iya:
This is Allah's will as related to His order, i.e., all that with
which He has ordered us via His messengers. At this point in time,
that means the Shariah found in the message of Muhammad (saws).
This will may be in any particular case and it may not be. Thus
Allah ordered that Abu Talib should be a Muslim, but He did not
decree it. This will contains only that which is pleasing to Allah,
i.e. that which is enjoined in the Shariah.

In this verse, the believing man
is addressing another who has become haughty because of worldly
wealth which Allah has given him. He says to him that if you were
so pleased with your garden when you entered it, why didn't you
then thank Allah for the bounty which He has bestowed upon you,
reminding yourself that whatever happens is only what Allah has
decreed. This would have been on your part an admission of your
powerlessness, and that all that is in your garden is only by Allah's
will, as is its continued existence or its destruction and decay.
Furthermore, the development and cultivation which you have done
to it was only by Allah's permission and with His aid, not by your
own strength, capability or power.

Knowledge Contained In This Ayat

Affirmation of Allah's will, in this
case His absolute will or decree which must be, and which is the
sole determinant of all events.

All that occurs and all that is can
only be that which Allah has predestined and decreed to be.

A reminder to praise/thank (Al-Hamd)
Allah for His bounties and to acknowledge our helplessness and lack
of power except with the aid of Allah Most High.

That nothing can be transformed from
one state to another except by Allah's power. (This is the meaning
of Laa Haula wa Laa Quwwata illa billahi.)

A sincere advice and a reprimand
to anyone who says something like what the owner of the garden said.
In the verses before this, he is quoted as saying: I am greater
than you in wealth and stronger in number. Then, when he entered
his garden, he said: I don't think this will ever be destroyed.
And I don't think the Hour is really coming; and even if I am returned
to my Lord, I will surely find something even better than this in

In Sura Al-Baqarah, Allah mentions
the Prophets, peace be upon them, and then says:

{...And if Allah had so willed, those
who came after then would never have fought one another after that
which is clear had come to them. But they differed: some of them
believed and some of them disbelieved. If Allah had so willed, they
would never have fought, but Allah does as He wishes.} Al-Baqarah/253

In this verse, Allah informs us of
what took place among the followers of all of the Prophets, peace
be upon them, and what was to take place among Muhammad's followers
as well. They differed and became enemies of each other. Here, Allah
reminds us that all of that was only be His will (of the first type
as explained above, and not of the second type!), since nothing
whatsoever can take place in His creation except that which He as
predestined and decreed. If Allah had willed that they would not
differ and fight, it would not have happened. In fact, as Allah
tells us elsewhere in the Qur'an, if He had willed that all humanity
be believers, it would have been so, but he did otherwise for a
wisdom and a reason known to Him.

Knowledge Contained In This Ayat

Affirmation of Allah's absolute will
and that whatever occurs is by His will and that whatever He wills
must occur.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of doing, and that He does whatever He wishes.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of absolute power and ability to do all things.

The next verse from Sura Al-Maidah
is an example of the other will of Allah, i.e., the one relating
to that which pleases Allah and that which He enjoins upon us and
that is the Shari'ah if Islam.

{O you who believe, fulfil your contractual
obligations. Allowed for you are the grazing animals, except that
which has been recited to you, and not to make hunted animals allowed
while you are in a state of Ihraam. Verily Allah rules as He wishes.}

The will of Allah alluded to here
is of the second type explained above. It is clear that it is Allah's
will or order that we eat only of the animals which are Halal, and
that we not break the restrictions on hunting during the Hajj. It
is also clear that this will does not always occur in all cases.
Some people follow the orders of Allah, while others violate it
and partake of the haraam.

Allah rules (yahkum) as He wishes.
He is the absolute sovereign and source of law (u>Al-Hakim),
and there can be no objection to His rulings. He is Al-Hakim and
there is no other sovereign (Haakim) other than Him. All sovereignty
other than His sovereignty is false and rejected. Anyone who rules
by any rulings or laws other than those of Allah and His Prophet
(saws) is a Taaghoot (shaitaan) and a Kaafir. Allah said:

{And any who rule not by what Allah
has sent down are indeed Kaafireen.}

This is general, and covers all areas
of life. There is no issue in which Allah does not have a ruling.
Allah said:

{We have neglected nothing in the

{On this day we have perfected for
you the Deen, and completed our favour upon you.}

The Prophet said in the hadith:

I have left you on the clearest of
bases. Its night is like its day. None are corrupted away from it
except those doomed to destruction.

It was an obligation upon every single
messenger sent by Allah to point his nation to all that he knew
was for their good and to warn them against all that he knew was
for their detriment.

Abu Dharr said: The Prophet (saws)
passed way from us and there was not a single bird flapping its
wings in the sky but that he had given us some knowledge of it.

There can be no doubt that anyone
who turns away from the book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger
(saws) and taking in its stead man-made laws is a kaafir whose Kufr
is sufficient to remove him from the Ummah of the Muslims. Likewise,
anyone who mocks the Qur'an, or claims that it is contradictory
or a forgery or that humans could produce the likes of it. Also
anyone who denies or rejects any part of the contents of the Qur'an.

It is also Kufr for anyone to believe
that they can transcend the law of Muhammad, as it was possible
for Al-Khidhr in the Qur'an to transcend the law of Musa. Or one
who believes the guidance of another man to be superior to the guidance
of Muhammad (saws). Or that we must transcend his law because of
the time in which we are living - i.e., that it was fine in the
days in which it was revealed but is not out of date.

Knowledge Contained In This Ayat

Affirmation of Allah's absolute and
unique sovereignty.

Four-legged grazing type animals
are halal, except what has been exempted in the Qur'an or the Sunnah.

Prohibition of hunting during the
period of Ihraam.

Affirmation of Allah's will as relates
to his Shariah, and that He rules in whatever way He wishes.

Affirmation of the Tauhid of Allah's

Allah's mercy and compassion with
His creation.

Allah's Will

{Is then the one who had been dead,
who We brought to life and for whom We made a light with which he
walks among the people like the one whose analogy is [as] one in
darkness, never coming out there from? Thus, that which the disbelievers
do is made to seem fair to them. * And thus We made in every village
prominent ones who are its criminals that they may plot therein.
But they plot not except against their own souls, without even knowing
it. * And when a clear sign comes to them, they say: We will not
believe until we are given like that which was given to the Messengers
of Allah. Allah knows best where He placed His message. He will
afflict the criminals with humiliation before Allah and a harsh
punishment because of the plots which they used to make. * And so
as for he who Allah wishes to guide, He will expand his breast for
Islam; and whoever He wishes to send astray, He will make his breast
constricted and impenetrable as if they were ascending into the
sky. Thus Allah makes evil and punishment upon those who do not
believe. * This is the way of your Lord which is straight. We have
made the signs clear for those who accept admonition. * Theirs is
the abode of peace with their Lord and He is their protecting Ally
because of that which they used to do.} Al-An'aam/122-127

In this verse, Allah tells us that
whoever has been prepared by His will (which one?) and His decree
to accept the Da'wah of Islam, which is the Deen of Al-Fitra and
the guidance to the path of righteousness will find in his heart
an expansiveness and an open-minded, joyous desire to accept the
Da'wah. This joy in the heart at the hearing of the Da'wah will
mean that they will experience no difficulty in looking carefully
into that which is being presented to them and contemplating it.
Then, this person will discover its wonders and his whole heart
and will will be guided to the bright light and flawless proofs
of the message of Islam.

That Prophet (saws) was asked about
the meaning of expansion of the breast and said:

A light which is cast therein making
it expansive and roomy. They then asked him if there were any signs
by which this state could be known. He said: The turning [of the
heart] toward the Abode of Permanence, the repulsion from the Abode
of Deception and preparedness for death before its approach.

Then Allah said: {and whoever He
wishes to send astray...}. Whoever possesses a fitrah which has
become impure through the presence of Associationism or contaminated
with sins and disobedience will find his heart tight and constricted
when he is called to contemplate the signs of Tauhid. He will not
be open to the contemplation of the clear signs in the revelation,
in the physical world around him and in himself. Rather, his heart
is infatuated with the falsehood of custom, nationalism, arrogance
and other forms of foolishness. He is blocked from turning away
from that to which he as become accustomed as have the people around
him. His will is not strong enough to leave his ways in response
to the caller to the Deen of Islam. He finds the practice of the
Deen to be a heavy burden, and feels incapable of carrying it, just
as one who ascends into the upper atmosphere feels constriction
in the chest and difficulty in breathing. Another interpretation
of this analogy is that practicing Islam seems as heavy a burden
to him as if he were asked to fly (unaided) up into the atmosphere.

Ibn Taimia said elsewhere: Allah
made three types of hearts: impenetrable, diseased and believing.
This is because it is either dry and fossilized and unable to soften
up to the truth and acknowledge and submit to it, or it is not so.
The first one is the impenetrable heart - it is dry and hard like
a rock - it cannot change and faith has not been decreed for it.
Furthermore, knowledge can not enter it, because that requires a
soft and open place to accept it. The second is either firm and
steadfast in faith due to inner strength along with softness and
openness of the heart or this openness may be accompanied by weakness
and negligence. The first is the believing heart, and the second
is the one in which their is disease.

Knowledge Contained In This Ayat

The reality of the two types of wills
which belong to Allah Most High and the difference between them.

That guidance and going astray is
entirely in the hands of Allah Most High and not within human power.

Affirmation of the Deity ship and
Lordship of Allah Most High.

That we possess no power over our
benefit or our harm and are completely impoverished and in need
before our Lord Most High for guidance and for all other needs.

The One who alone possesses creation
and giving of sustenance is the only One to rightfully be given
exclusive devotion in the area of Deityship, worship, beseeching
and all other forms of worship. No one - neither Prophets nor angels
nor anyone else - has any power to guide hearts or remove calamities
except Allah Most High.

Affirmation of Al-'Illa and the wisdom
behind Allah's actions and rulings. Since He does them intentionally
and wilfully, there is of necessity a reason and a wisdom behind
all of Allah's actions and rulings.

A sign of those for whom Allah has
decreed belief is an openness and softness of the heart to receive
and contemplate the message of Islam followed by a joyful acceptance
of it and an easy and willing submission to all of its dictates.

A sign of those for whom Allah has
decreed disbelief is the constriction and difficulty of the heart
to listen to the message of Islam followed by a stubbornness and
unwillingness to contemplate its message and a perception of the
practice of Islam as a heavy burden.

Allah directs the hearts of his slaves
in whatever way He wishes. (The Prophet (saws) used to make Du'a
to Muqallib Al-Quloob i.e., He who turns hearts over.

That there are signs which indicate
those for whom faith has been decreed and those for whom disbelief
has been decreed.

Whoever feels that Allah has blessed
him with expansiveness of breast to accept Islam and submit easily
to its teachings should constantly express gratitude to Allah and
beseech Him to grant him steadfastness on the path until death.

Question: There are four logical
possibilities of the presence of either or both of Allah's wills
in any event. Name and describe the four possible combinations and
give examples for each.

Allah's Attribute Of Love

{And spend in the path of Allah and
do not cast yourselves to destruction with your own hands and practice
Ihsaan. Verily, Allah loves those who practice Ihsaan.} Al-Baqarah/195

[Note: Read 5:41 which speaks about
hypocrites and some of their allies first.]

{Constant listeners to lies, constant
devourers of the forbidden. So, if they come to you, judge between
them, or turn away from them. If you [decide to] turn away from
them, they will not harm you in the least. And, if you [decide to]
judge between them, judge between them with in equity. Verily, Allah
loves those who judge in equity.} Al-Maidah/42

{How could the associationists have
a pact before Allah and His Prophet?! Except those with whom you
made a pact at the Sacred Mosque: as long as they live up to their
pledges to you, live up to yours to them, verily, Allah loves the
people of Taqwa.} At-Tauba/9

{They ask you about menses. Say:
It is unclean, so withdraw from women during their courses. And
do not approach them until they have become clean. Then, when they
have purified themselves, go to them from where Allah has ordered
you. Verily, Allah loves those who ever turn to Him in repentance
and He loves those who ever purify themselves.} Al-Baqarah/222

{Say: If you [truly] love Allah,
then follow me that Allah may love you and forgive you your sins.
And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. * Say: Obey Allah and obey the
Prophet. Then, if they turn away [know that] Allah loves not the
disbelievers.} Aal-Imran/31-32

In these verse is the proof of Allah's
attribute of love. Love is one of the attributes of Allah's actions
(u>As-Sifaat Al-Fi'liya). There can be no doubt about this attribute
of Allah as is clear from the Qur'an, the Sunnah, and the Consensus
of the beginning of the Ummah of the Muslims. His love is called
just that, and is of a nature appropriate to His Greatness and Perfection.
It cannot be compared to human love except in name, since Allah
said about himself: {There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the
Hearer, the Seer}. This is the case with all of Allah's attributes,
both those of His Essence and those of His Actions.

The linguistic derivation of the
work for love (Hubb) contains the meanings of things being consistently
together, and steadfastness. Thus is is said that a camel Ahabb
(the same verb as the one meaning loves) when it sits down and is
quiet. Thus, one who loves is constant in the remembrance of the
object of his love, and his heart is steadfast in its love with
not desire to move away from it or to shift it to another.

Among the evidences of the Sunnah
for Allah's attribute of Love is the following sahih hadith narrated
by Ahmad:

Three Allah loves, and three Allah
hates: a man who faces the enemy along with a group [of mujahideen]
and continues to face them until he either is killed, or opens a
way for his companions; a group of people who press on in their
journey until they yearn to touch the ground (i.e. sleep), and so
they stop. Then one of them takes himself off to one side and continues
praying until he wakes his companions to continue their journey;
and a man who has a neighbour who harasses him and who is patient
with his neighbour's torments until they are separated by death
or journey. As for those whom Allah hates: a businessman who ever
swears by the truth of his claims; a poor person who is arrogant;
and a stingy person who is ostentatious and boastful about what
he gives.

Ibn Taimia said: The people of the
Sunnah and Al-Jamaa say that Allah loves and is pleased, as the
Qur'an and the Sunnah have clearly shown. They further say that
Allah's love and his pleasure (or acceptance) is more specific than
His Will. Thus, Allah does not love disbelief or any forms of corruption
and disobedience nor does he accept it, even though all of these
things fall under His Will and His Decree as does everything in
the creation.

Discussion Of The Cited Versus Cited

In this verse, Allah informs us that
He loves Al-Muhsineen i.e., those who practice Ihsaan. Ihsaan means
doing of good, and is the opposite of Isaa'a, doing bad [toward]
or offending. Ihsaan is of two type: Ihsaan in the worship of Allah
and Ihsaan toward His creation. Ihsaan in the worship of Allah has
been interpreted in the hadith as: worship Allah as if you
see him for, verily, even though you do not see Him, He surely sees
you. As for Ihsaan toward His creation, it can consist of causing
spiritual or material benefit to reach them or using ones strengths
to keep some harm away from them, or both together. In this category
is the spending of knowledge, i.e., exerting of one's efforts to
teach people that which is beneficial to them and which has not
reached them, and the spending of material wealth in the many paths
of good.

It has been authenticated that Ibn
Abbas said about the phrase in the first part of this verse, i.e.,
do not cast yourselves to destruction that: This is about spending
and not about fighting. This means that the Muslims have been warned
that if they neglect the spending of wealth in the path of Allah,
they will cast themselves to destruction. This can come about in
three ways: 1) Excessive and unnecessary spending of what Allah
has blessed us with, so the remainder is not sufficient to spend
in the path of Allah; 2) Greediness and a desire to build up one's
wealth rather than spending in the path of Allah; and 3) Laziness
and/or backwardness which causes one not seek the sources of material
power in the first place, and so it is not available to be spent
in the path of Allah. This can be caused by a misunderstanding of
Islam and thinking that it demands that we flee from the life of
this world altogether. This will lead to our casting ourselves to
destruction with our own hands!!

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of love -- in a manner appropriate to His Greatness and Perfection.

That rewards or punishments are appropriate
to the actions which caused them.

Ihsaan is a cause of Allah's love
for His slave.

Proof that we act and that our actions
have consequences.

An urging to seek the way and practice
of Ihsaan.

Allah's great Compassion for his
slaves, in that He enjoins us to practice Ihsaan with one another.

Allah's Attribute Of Love

Justice and equitable, unbiased judgement
are a must in all interaction and judgments with all people. This
is regardless of whether such are relatives, strangers, enemies
or friends. Equity with respect to Allah's rights over us means
to utilize all of the provision which He has bestowed upon us in
the path of obedience to Him, and not to use any of that for the
purpose of disobedience to Allah ta'ala.

Allah loves those who are just and
equitable in all that they commit and all that they omit. He loves
those the just with their families, and all that have been placed
under their care or custody, in any work which they undertake, any
decision which they give in a question and in every responsibility
of any kind. Ibn Abbas narrates that the Prophet (saws) said:

The just are with Allah on the day
of Qiyamah on towers of light on the right of the Throne -- those
who are equitable in their rulings, with their families, and in
all responsibilities which they have been given.

Justice is obligatory from everyone
toward everyone and in all situations. Oppression is absolutely
forbidden and can never be permissible in any situation. Furthermore,
justice is something loved by all humanity. It is of the Ma'roof
which the heart recognizes as good and which Islam enjoins and orders
us to enjoin. On the other hand, oppression (or injustice and inequity
in judgement) is of the Munkar which the heart rejects, and which
Islam forbids us and commands us to forbid it to others. (The Prophet
reported Allah as saying: I have forbidden injustice to myself and
it is likewise forbidden among you.)

The law of Islam or Shariah which
is obligatory upon every ruler and state to apply to the fullest
is absolutely just. It contains no injustice or unfairness of any
kind. Rather, the ruling of Allah is the ultimate and perfect ruling
in all issues. The Shariah is that which Allah sent down. Whoever
rules by what Allah has sent, rules with justice and equity, and
whoever rules by other than what Allah sent down is, as Allah has
described him (or her) in the Qur'an and oppressor (Dhaalim), corrupt
(Faasiq) and a disbeliever who has left Islam (Kaafir).

A nation's affairs can be established
through a system of justice which is mixed with sins and deviations
more than it can be established with an oppressive system, even
though it may contain few other sins (and be quite Islamic otherwise).
For this reason, it has been said that Allah causes the just nation
to flourish even if it is disbelieving, but He causes the oppressive
nation to perish, though it may be Muslim. The affairs of this world
can flourish with justice combined with disbelief, but not with
Islam combined with oppression.

This is because justice is the system
of the entire creation. So, if the affairs of this world are established
and maintained with justice, they will succeed, even though their
authors may have no share in the good of the hereafter. If, however,
the affairs of this world are executed with oppression and injustice,
they will not flourish, even though their authors may have Iman
sufficient to save them in the hereafter

Knowledge Found In This verse

Allah's order to be just and equitable
in all things.

Justice is a cause of Allah's love.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Love

Affirmation that humans act and are
responsible for their actions -- that Allah will recompense all
of use in accordance with our actions: reward for good and obedience
to the Shari'a, and punishment for evil doing and transgression
of the Shariah.

In this verse, Allah instructs the
Muslims how they must act toward the pagans of Makka in relation
to a peace treaty which was between them since before the revelation
of Sura At-Tauba. Allah's statement { long as they live up
to their pledges to you, live up to yours to them...} means that
as long as they live up to the terms of the agreement between you
and them and continue to restrain from warfare (for the prescribed
ten years). The Prophet (saws) and the Muslims did that, and the
peace treaty with the pagans of Makka from Dhiy Al-Qi'dah of year
6 until Quraish broke the agreement by inciting their allies among
the Arab bedouins (particularly, a tribe called Banu Bakr) to attack
the allies of the Muslims among the bedouins. At that point, the
Prophet invaded Makka with a force of 10,000 believers, and the
Holy city was liberated by Allah for belief and worship in Ramadhan
of year 8.

Love is the gravitation of the soul
toward the object of love because of some perceived attribute of
goodness or perfection. Al-Azhariy said: Love of the slave for Allah
and for His Prophet (saws) is his obedience of their orders and
the following of them in all things. The love of Allah for His slave
is a love which is appropriate to His Greatness and Perfection and
its signs are His Mercy, His kindness and favour toward His slave.
The meaning of this verse is: Say [to them], O Muhammad that if
you truly love Allah, then follow me, for that which I have brought
is from Him and makes clear His Attributes, His orders and His forbiddances.
One who truly loves is very concerned to know the object of his
love and to know his orders and forbiddances, that which pleases
and that which annoys him so that he may seek to come closer to
the object of his love through complying with his wishes and avoiding
all that displeases him. Thus, if you follow me, Allah will surely
love you.

This is a firm rejection of those
claim to Allah's love while their actions give lie to their words.
It is not possible for love to exist in the presence of ignorance
of the Loved and lack of care for His orders and forbiddances. This
is as Al-Warraaq said in poetry:

You disobey the god while you feign
love of him;

This, I swear is a new type of analogy;

If your love were true, you would
obey Him;

He who truly loves is to his loved

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Affirmation of the Deity ship of
Allah ta'ala.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Love.

Enjoining the true love Allah which
means exerting oneself in its cause -- seeking Allah's love through
obedience to Him.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Forgiving. Among Allah's names are Al-Ghafoor and Al-Ghaffaar.

An order to follow the Messenger
(saws). This verse is the standard by which those who truly love
Allah can be known and distinguished from those who falsely claim
to love Him. The sign of love for Allah is the following of His
Prophet (saws) in all things.

Note: Al-Jahmiya and Al-Mu'tazilah
and those who followed them rejected Allah's attribute of Love.
They said that love is something which does not occur except between
similar beings. With this flimsy argument, they attempted to strip
Allah of one of the attributes which He attributed to Himself!

Summary: Allah Most High loves the
people of obedience to His orders: the prophets and messengers,
His angels, His allies (awliyaa) and the believers and Muhsineen
among His slaves. Allah is also the object of the love of His devoted,
believing slaves, and their love of Him knows no equal in anyone
or anything else. This is the obligation upon every Muslim: that
every love be subordinate to and lesser than a Muslims love for
Allah and His Prophet (saws). Love of Allah is the heart of all
righteous action and all worship, both apparent and internal is
based on the love of the slave for his Lord Most High. This is only
by Allah's grace and mercy, and through no power or ability of His
slave. Rather it is Allah who loved his slave and granted him the
love of Allah in his heart and made it greater than all other love,
so that he would be among the people of obedience to Allah and people
of His love and acceptance.

Allah's Attributes Of Mercy And

Allah's statements: {In the name
of Allah, Al-Rahman, Al-Raheem}, {Our Lord You have encompassed
everything with mercy and with knowledge}, {And [Allah] is, with
the believers, ever Raheem (merciful)}, {And my Mercy encompasses
all things}, {You Lord as decreed mercy upon Himself.}, {And He
is Al-Ghafoor (the Forgiving), Al-Raheem (Al-Raheem)}, {And Allah
is the best Protector, and He is the most Merciful of those who
have mercy.}

Al-Basmalah: The preposition bi,
here translated as in, signifies the seeking of Allah's aid. It
goes with an omitted phrase which it indicates equivalent to I begin,
seeking Allah's aid... The word for name (ism) is derived from either
the root meaning elevation or loftiness or from the root meaning
sign or marking. The Arabic word Allah is derived from aliha which
connotes Deity ship or the taking of one as a deity. The derivation
of this word is that it was originally Al-Ilaah, i.e., the god.
Then, the Hamza in the middle was eliminated to form Allah. This
word was in use among the Arabs to denote the Lord and Creator long
before the coming of Islam. This name of Allah, like all of His
names, serves as a name, and also indicates some of His attributes,
here His attribute of Deityship. About His being Al-Rahman, Al-Raheem,
Ibn Abbas said: Al-Rahman and Al-Raheem are two names denoting compassion,
one more so than the other, i.e. denoting a more encompassing Compassion.
Both words are intense forms (u>Seeghat Al-Mubaalagha). Al-Rahman
is a form more intense than Al-Raheem and involves a more drastic
change to the root. Al-Rahman is only for Allah ta'ala. No others
can be names or described with this attribute. In fact, this word
was not used in Arabic until Allah himself introduced it in the
revelation. This is not the case with Al-Raheem. People can be described
with this attribute and, in fact, Allah himself described His Messenger
with this attribute in the Qur'an.

Ibn Al-Qayyim said: The names of
the Lord Most High are both names and attributes. They point to
His attributes of Greatness and Perfection, with no contradiction
between their being attributes and their being names. Al-Rahman
is His name and it is also a description of His attributes.

As for the mention of both of these
attributes together, it has a meaning more sublime than the sum
of the two meanings: Al-Rahman indicates the attribute of Mercy
in Allah's essence (one of As-Sifaat Adh-Dhaatiya, remember?), while
Al-Raheem indicates this mercy being carried out with relation to
those shown mercy (and thus is one of As-Sifaat Al-Fi'liya). The
first one means that Allah has the attribute of Mercy, and the second
means that He indeed has mercy on His creation. This distinction
can be seen from the Qur'an itself, where Allah mentions that He
is Al-Raheem with the believers, etc., but never is Al-Rahman mentioned
in conjunction with Allah's creation.

These two names also indicate the
truth of the sending of the prophets and the revealed books. This
is clear to anyone who ponders their meaning. Allah's attribute
of mercy and His actual mercy upon His creation makes in impossible
that He could neglect them and not inform them of the way to absolute
bliss. Thus, anyone who gives these attributes their full due, will
realize that they include in their meaning the sending of the messengers
and the revealed books even more clearly than they include the sending
of the rain or the causing of plants to grow. The life of the heart
arising from Allah's mercy in giving us guidance is far superior
to the physical life of our bodies arising out of His supplying
us with physical sustenance in this world.

Knowledge Contained In The Basmala

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Compassion and Mercy.

Affirmation of the Deity ship of
Allah ta'ala.

Affirmation of Allah's names and
attributes generally.

{Those who carry the Throne and those
around it exalt the praises of their Lord and believe in Him; and
they seek forgiveness for those who believe: Our Lord! You have
encompassed everything with mercy and knowledge, so forgive those
who have repented and have followed Your path, and shield them from
the torment of Al-Jaheem!} Ghaafir/7

Allah's mercy is of two types: His
all-encompassing mercy which includes all of his creation, and His
special mercy and compassion for those who live according to His
Order, those who do that which Allah loves and that which pleases
Him. The angels her invoke Allah's all-encompassing mercy in making
Du'a for the righteous believers who practice repentance.

{Muhammad is not the father of any
of your men. Rather, the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the
Prophets. And Allah is in full knowledge of all things. * O, you
who believe remember Allah, much remembrance. * And exalt Him morning
and evening. * He is the one who sends His prayers upon you along
with His angels, that He may take you out of the darkness to the
light and He is, with the believers, Most Merciful.} Al-Ahzaab/40-43.

Here, Allah informs us that He has
a special mercy for the believers, the people of His Way and His
Order. As for this life: His mercy upon them is that He guided them
to the truth of which others remained ignorant, and showed them
the way which others failed to see or deviated from such as those
who call to Kufr or Bida'h and the ignorant ones who follow them.
And Allah's mercy upon the believers in the hereafter: It is His
protecting them from the fear and tribulations of that day, the
His Order to the angels to receive them with glad tidings of success
with paradise. About this mercy, Allah said: {I will decree (lit:
write) it for those who have Taqwa and pay the Zakat, those who
believe in our Ayat, those who follow the unlettered Prophet Messenger...}
(7:156-157) And, in another verse: {Verily, those for whom good
has been decreed will be from it far removed. They will hear no
sound of it and they will be in that which they desire for eternity.
The Greatest Tribulation will not grieve them and the angels will
receive them [saying] this is your day which you were promised!}

Knowledge In These Ayaat

Affirmation of Allah's Mercy and,
in particular, His special mercy toward the people of obedience
to Him.

A reminder to strive for Iman.

A rejection of the position of those
who rejected Allah's attribute of Mercy, or interpreted it in some
obscure and unjustified fashion.

Allah's Attribute Of Mercy And Forgiveness

{And write (i.e. decree) for us in
this world a good thing and in the hereafter. We have been guided
to you. He said: [As for] my punishment, I send it upon whomever
I wish and my Mercy encompasses all things. So I will write (i.e.
decree) it for those who have Taqwa and pay the Zakat, and those
who believe in Our ayat. * Those who follow the Messenger, the Unlettered
Prophet...} 7:156

Allah here informs us that His Mercy
is general, encompassing all things in the upper worlds and the
lower worlds, both the righteous and the corrupt, the believer and
the disbeliever. There is no living thing, but that the Mercy of
Allah has touched it. However, the most complete mercy is not for
everyone in Allah's creation, as we see in Allah's statement {So
I will write it...}. This is the special Mercy for the People of
piety and obedience to Allah and is the Mercy whose consequence
is joy in this life and in the next. Thus, in this verse is found
proof of Allah's attribute of Mercy, that it is expansive and encompasses
His entire creation, and also that His special Mercy which leads
to joy in the hereafter is reserved for the people of taqwa and

{Say: Whose is all that is in the
heavens and the earth? Say: [They belong] to Allah. He has written
Mercy upon Himself. Verily, He will gather you all on the day of
Qiyama, in which there is no doubt. Those who lost their own selves
do not believe.} 6:12

This verse starts with a reminder
that Allah is the Creator of all that is in the universe and the
Owner and absolute Free Agent of His creation. This is followed
immediately by Allah's declaration that He has written Mercy upon
Himself. Here Allah shows His compassion for those who have turned
their backs on Him, reminding us that He is Raheem with His slaves
and fully capable of delivering immediate punishment for their actions.
In spite of this, He has written mercy upon Himself, giving them
time right up to the approach of death or Qiyama to repent and change
their ways. He has written this, and promised it to us purely as
a grace and a favour from Him. No one has or possibly could oblige
Him to do that or anything else. This is then followed by mention
of those who lose their own selves. This is a reminder of our full
accountability for actions. So, although, with our meagre understanding,
it may not seem merciful or even just for Allah to punish those
who transgress and die without repenting from their sins, we are
reminded again that we make our own choices and act. Therefore,
it is completely just and fair that we face their consequences.
Furthermore, it shows that great Mercy of Allah that he will overlook
much, forgive many sins, and leave the door to repentance open.

This process of writing in the Qur'an
comes with both its Shar'iy (please review if you have forgotten!)
and Kauniy meanings. Examples of this word in the Qur'an with its
Shar'iy meaning include the following: {Fasting has been written
upon you...}, And We wrote upon them in it (i.e. the Taurat) that
[the law is] a life for a life...}. And, examples of its Kauniy
meaning include: {And we have written in Az-Zaboor, after the Dhikr,
that the earth will be inherited by my righteous slaves...}, {He
wrote upon him (i.e. Shaitaan) that [his state would be such that]
with regard to any who turn to him, he will lead them astray and
guide them to the punishment of the blazing fire.}

In this verse we have another example
of this term used in its Kauniy sense. Allah has written upon himself
Mercy with His creation as a pure favour from Him and with no compulsion
from any direction.

Think about this: We know that it
is possible for a person to obligate himself with certain things
or to forbid other things to himself. Thus, this is obviously possible
for He above whom there is nor one capable or ordering or forbidding.
Also: Allah's writing something upon Himself necessitates his wanting
of that thing to be, His loving it and acceptance of it just as
His forbidding himself something necessitates his dislike for it
and His intention that it should not be. Thus, whatever Allah writes
and obligates upon Himself must occur, and whatever Allah forbids
Himself must not and will not occur. This is in contrast to that
which He forbids His creation or that which He obligates upon His
creation, all of which takes place in some cases, but not in others.
Human actions are always in accordance with Allah's decree, but
are not always in accordance with His order, and that which He likes
and that which pleases him. His actions, on the other hand, are
always exactly what he wills and that which it pleases Him to do.
This explains why write in this verse is Kauniy and not Shar'iy.

The people have become divided in
this issue into two extremes of deviation, and the middle way. On
group rejects the idea that anything could become required of him
or forbidden him even through His own action and choice. Others
declared a variety of things obligatory upon Allah or forbidden
to Him using their minds.

Allah has guided the Ummah to the
middle way in that in which they differed. He is not to be compared
to His creation in any of His attributes or actions. On the other
hand, his attributes with which He has described Himself cannot
be negated or rejected. Nothing can be declared obligatory upon
him or forbidden to Him, rather the people of the middle way simply
report that which He has said about himself in the Qur'an or through
His Prophet (saws).

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Mercy.

Affirmation of the Tauhid of Allah's

Allah's care for his creation is
of two types: general and specific. The general includes His creation
of all people, His giving of sustenance, and His showing them the
way to that which is to their benefit in this life and the next.
Allah's special care is His mercy and care for His allies (Awliyaa)
which is his nurturing of their Iman and His granting them the success
of doing that which pleases Him and is in accordance with His order.

Affirmation that Allah has a self
(nafs), and that, like all of Allah's attributes, is of a nature
and meaning appropriate to His greatness and perfection.

Allah's Attributes Of Being Pleased
With, Anger, Wrath, Dislike For Something Etc.

{You will never find a people who
believe in Allah and the Last Day gravitating toward the love of
those who act in opposition to Allah and His Messenger; even though
they may be their fathers, their sons, their brothers or their kinsmen.
For these Allah has written (i.e. decreed) Iman in their hearts
and aided them with a spirit from Him. He will admit them to gardens
under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. Allah is well
pleased with them and they with Him. These are the party of Allah.
Truly, it is the Party of Allah who will be successful.} 58/22.

In the verses of this chapter and
others, Allah Most High describes Himself with the following attributes
of action:

Ar-Ridhaa: to be pleased with something
or someone, in this case with the believers and their actions.

Al-Ghadhab: anger; Allah is, as he
mentioned in Al-Fatiha and elsewhere, angry with those who rebelliously
disobey His orders.

As-Sakht: wrath; a more extreme anger,
things which Allah loathes and which annoy and displease Him.

Al-Kurh: to be displeased with something.

Al-La'n: usually translated to curse.
It means for one to be completely removed from and distanced from
Allah's mercy.

All of these attributes and those
like them are of Allah's attributes of action (As-Sifaat Al-Fi'liya)
which Allah does when and as He wishes.

It is firmly established by textual
evidence that the Creator has attributes of willful action such
as sitting on the throne, withholding, giving in abundance, descending,
and creating. Of these, some involve Allah alone, while others are
transitive in nature and are actions which affect Allah's creation.
This division corresponds to the two type of verbs found in all
human languages. There can be no doubt that both types of actions
are actions of Allah whether of the first type or the second. It
is impossible either logically or in terms of the Shariah that they
could have their existence in any besides Him. Further, all of Allah's
wilful actions are under his complete Power and Will. Whenever and
whatever He wishes to speak is spoken. Whatever He wishes to do
He does whether in the past, the present or the future. This is
a principle upon which the early generations were unanimous and
which are clear in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

In the first verse above, Allah sets
out in no uncertain terms on of the attributes of the believers:
Their loyalty, their love is entirely dedicated to Allah, His Messenger,
and the people of Iman. They do not gravitate toward the people
of disbelief or yearn to be like them and imitate them, no matter
how close their previous relationship may have been. And, they do
not give their loyalty to or feel that they belong to any grouping
of any kind or description except for the group and the nation of
the believers. They place nothing above this tie of Iman, neither
the closest ties of blood and kinship or of nation, language, friendship,
etc. No need for long discussions on the relationship of Islam to
nationalism - Allah said it all and much more in this one verse.

Allah tells us that those who achieve
this level of Iman - rising above all other ties and groupings except
the brotherhood of Iman are the ones for whom He has decreed Iman
and that He will aid them with strength and the light of Iman in
their hearts. They are the ones who He will admit to the gardens
of Paradise. Next (and to the point of this chapter), Allah tells
us of his being pleased with these people and that they are content
with Him as their Deity. They represent the Party of Allah, and
Allah tells us that they are the ones who will be successful, i.e.,
will experience the good of this life and the next. The Prophet
(saws) taught about this attribute of Allah in the following hadith:

Verily Allah will say to the people
of Paradise: O, people of Paradise..., to which they will respond:
Labbaik, our Lord, and Saadaik, all good is in Your two Hands. Allah
will then say: Are you now pleased? They will answer: What is with
us that we could not be pleased, when You have given us that which
you gave no others in Your creation. Allah says: Should I not give
you something even better? Then, they will ask: O Lord, what could
possibly be better than that? To which Allah says: I fix upon you
My pleasure, and I shall never be angry with you, ever! [Narrated
by Muslim and Bukhari.]

{And whoever kills a believer intentionally
[shall have] his reward of Hell fire, to dwell therein forever.
Allah is angry with him, has cursed him and has prepared for him
a terrible punishment.} 4/93.

In this verse is a harsh warning
to those who intentionally murder a believer that their punishment
will be Hell fire forever. The meaning of forever (u>Khaalidan
feehaa) here is an extremely long stay therein. Allah further states
that he is angry with them (u>Al-Ghadhab), and has cursed them
(u>Al-La'n), i.e., has cast them away from His mercy. With respect
to human action, this word means to curse and to revile, while with
respect Allah's action it means to cast away and to put at a distance
(from His mercy). This is the opposite concept of Allah's sending
his prayers (u>Salaat) upon the righteous which has also been
mentioned in the Qur'an. {He is the one who sends His prayers upon
you, as do His angels, so that he may take you out of the darkness
into the light; and He is with the believers most Merciful. Their
greeting on the day they meet him is Salaam.} And, about Al-La'n,
Allah said: {Verily Allah has cursed the disbelievers and prepared
for them a blazing fire}.

The apparent meaning of this verse
is that tawbah is not accepted from one who killed a believer. This
position has been reported as the position of Ibn Abbas and others
among the companions, based on the many very harshly-worded hadith
about the sin of killing a Muslim. The position of the majority
of the Ummah, however, is that the verses and hadith about tauba
which state that all sins are wiped clean by tawbah include murder
and thus, what is meant here is one who died without repentance.
Wa Allahu A'alam!

Ibn Al-Qayyim said: The truth of
this matter is that murder involves three rights: Allah's right,
the right of the victim, and the right of the victim's guardian.
Thus, if the murderer surrenders himself voluntarily, sincerely
regretting what he has done and fear of Allah and repenting a full
repentance, Allah's right has been taken care of. Then, the right
of the victim's guardian can only be removed by the fulfilment of
what is upon him, compromise or forgiveness on the guardian's part.
As for the right of the victim which remains, Allah will compensate
for it on Qiyama for the sake of his sincere, repenting slave, and
so no rights are lost.

Further, if such a killer is put
into Hell fire, he will not stay therein for eternity. This is the
truth, insha Allah, and unlike the position of the Khawaarij and
Al-Mu'tazilah who say that they will be in the fire forever, even
if they were people of Tauhid. Hadith have been narrated from the
Prophet (saws) with Tawaatur (extremely large numbers of narrators
which make forgery impossible) which state clearly that all of the
people of Tauhid, if they enter the fire, will eventually be removed
there from.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

A harsh warning to any who wilfully
murder believers with legal cause.

Affirmation of Allah's attributes
(of action) of Anger and Cursing of those deserving thereof.

Killing of believers is completely
forbidden except for the three legal justifications: for murder,
for adultery when proven and tried and for spreading corruption
in the earth.

Jahannam is a reality. Allah has
prepared it for the disbelievers and the disobedient who He has
decided to punish.

Allah's absolute justice between
his slaves.

Evidence of the resurrection, the
gathering, the taking of accounts, paradise and hell-fire, and recompense
for our actions.

The sanctity of the rights of the

Proof that Allah has attributes of
wilful action.

The ruling mentioned in the verse
applied only to intentional killing of a believer.

Allah's Attributes Of Being Pleased
With, Anger, Wrath, Dislike for Something Etc.

{O, you who believe, why do you say
that which you do not do?! * Greatly detested is it before Allah
that you should say that which you do not do.} As-Saff/2-3

Al-Maqt is another attribute of Allah.
It means to loath, abhor or detest something and find it hateful.
The verse says that the loathsomeness of people among the group
of the believers who talk but fail to live up to what they themselves
say is very great with Allah. That is, that they should commit themselves
to something but fail to live up the meaning of their promise. This
is because the fulfilment of promises is a sign of noble and praiseworthy
character. Based on such character, and only with its presence,
the bonds of trust are created in the Jamaa, and its members are
brought close in ties of consideration and love. The opposite situation
gives precisely the opposite results: when the character of saying
what one does not becomes widespread, and this includes not living
up to promises, or feigning a commitment while in the heart there
is another reality, trust is not established among the members of
the Jamaa, and instead of closeness, mutual concern and compassion,
the group is afflicted with individualism, envy, hatred and broken
relationships. When the Ummah reaches this state, it becomes like
an untied knot: there is no benefit from it and they strike no fear
in the hearts of their enemies. They cannot function in any situation
of stress and challenge because of their tawaakul (not Tawakkul),
and because of their lack of trust in one another.

Knowledge Contained In These Verses

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Al-Maqt, to loath, detest or abhor.

That Allah's abhorrence is of varying
degrees (since the verse says kabura maqtan i.e., great is the loathing
of Allah that....

A reminder to Muslims that they should
always live up to their word in all things, both large and small,
and with other people as well as with Allah ta'ala.

The firmest of forbiddances of failing
to fulfil one's promises. This verse has been cited as evidence
that fulfilling of promises is absolutely obligatory with no exceptions,
even if there was never really an intention to do what was promised.
In this regard, the famous hadith from Muslim is also cited: The
signs of a Munaafiq are three: when he speaks he lies; when he promises
he fails to fulfil; and when he is entrusted with something he is

A single individual may be an enemy
of Allah and then become an ally (Waliy) of Allah and thus Allah
detested him in the first stage but loved him in the latter stage.

{So how [will it be] when the angels
take them in death, beating them in the front and in the back? *
That is because they followed that which causes Allah's hatred,
and they disliked [that which brings] His pleasure; and so He invalidated
their works. * Did those in whose hearts is sickness imagine that
Allah would not bring forth their inner secrets?} Muhammad/27-29

These verses describe the terrifying
ordeal of these people in death. They are all those who sink in
the disobedience of Allah, and to whom Shaytan has succeeded in
making lusts and sins and transgression seem acceptable or even
positive and good. They then come to detest all good things, all
that which pleases Allah ta'ala, i.e., Iman, Tauhid and obedience
to Allah's law. When this happens, Allah invalidates all good which
they may have done before their apostation. He also invalidates
all of their actions which in appearance are obedience and are righteousness
such as giving in charity, aiding the oppressed, maintaining ties
of kinship and friendship, etc. There can be no acts of obedience
and no possibility of thawaab in the absence of belief, and belief,
as we have seen, includes testimony, conviction and action!

Knowledge Contained In These Verses

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of As-Sakht, i.e., wrath or loathing. It is similar in meaning to
Al-Maqt, and the actual nature of all of Allah's attributes is that
which is appropriate to His Greatness and Perfection.

Proof of the causality of our actions
and our eventual situation. It is our choices and our actions which
determine whether we are of those who Allah loves or among those
who He detests. This in turn determines our condition in the hereafter.

That evil actions are the cause of
Allah's anger, torment, and the invalidation of one's good works.

Rejection of the claim that there
is no relationship between our actions and our reward or punishment.

A condemnation of those who love
that which is detested by Allah.

An equal condemnation of those who
hate that which Allah loves.

The great compassion of Allah for
His creation because of the fact that He sent His messengers (peace
be upon them) to make clear that which pleases Allah and leads to
our own happiness and that which displeases him and is a cause of
the invalidation of our actions, and our misery and torment in this
life and in the hereafter.

Proof that Allah takes vengeance
upon those who disobey him and go against His order.

A warning and reminder to all Muslims
to beware of going against Allah's order, since this is the cause
of His anger, His wrath and His punishment.

Allah's Attribute Of To Come (Al-Majee',

{O you who believe, enter into the
Peace (i.e. Islam) all together and do not follow the steps of Shaytan.
Verily he is to you a clear enemy. * And if you backslide after
that which has come to you by way of clear signs, know that Allah
is Mighty, Wise (Sovereign). * Is it then anything that they await
but that Allah should come to them in canopies of clouds along with
the angels, and the issue is settled. And to Allah is the conclusion
of all issues. Al-Baqarah/ 208-210.

In these verses, Allah informs us
that the only way to be safe when Allah comes to us and all accounts
are settled is to enter into the peace of submission to Allah's
order. We are warned not to follow the steps of Shaytan who, being
our avowed enemy, waits at every turn to lead us astray to whatever
extent he can. If we fail to heed these warnings, we are reminded
of Allah's perfect attributes of Might. Might, in that Allah is
fully capable of taking vengeance upon those who rebel against His
order, as has been explained in the Tafsir. And, Wise (or Sovereign)
in that His Justice is absolute and none shall be oppressed in the
least. This demands the punishment of the wrongdoers, since it would
not be just to those who worked righteousness to be treated in the
same manner as the criminals. {Should then we treat those who submit
the same as the criminals? * What is wrong with you, how do you
judge?!}. And, finally, Allah informs us of the time when He will
come to us, along with His Angels, and all accounts will be settled
and final. Obviously, we must prepare for that day, since what follows
it is eternal - either torment or bliss. As Imam Ali (may Allah
be pleased with him) used to say: Prepare during your passage for
you place of permanence.

Knowledge Contained In These Verses

Islam is the complete submission
to Allah's order.

Allah will justly repay all for their
actions, good and bad.

Proof of the resurrection, the taking
of accounts, and the repayment for all actions.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of being High and above His creation.

Affirmation of Allah's attributes
of voluntary action (Al-Af'aal Al-Ikhtiyaariya), and in particular,
that He will come down to us on Qiyamah (Al-Ityaan).

Allah is the final Judge of all affairs,
and all affairs will go to Him for resolution.

In these verses, and all those dealing
with Qiyamah, is a reminder to the believer to rush to rectify his
or her actions and repent to Allah without delay since Qiyamah may
come upon him suddenly by way of an unexpected death, or an early
illness may prevent him from doing good works and improving his

{As for man, whenever his Lord tests
him, bestowing on him honour and wealth, he says, My Lord has honoured
me. * And as for [the times when] He tests him, limiting his wealth,
he says, My Lord has humiliated me. * No! Rather you respect not
the orphans. * Nor do you encourage one another to feed the poor.
* And you greedily devour inheritances. * And you love wealth with
an inordinate love. * No! When the Earth is pounded to powder. *
And your Lord comes along with the angels, rank upon rank. * And
hell-fire that day is brought out. On that day, man will remember,
but how will this remembrance benefit him? * He will say, Woe is
me, if only I had sent forth (some good deeds) for (this) my (real)
life.} Al-Fajr (89)/15-24.

Knowledge Contained In These Verses

Allah's attribute of to come (Al-Majee')

The angels, too, will come down with
Allah subhaanahu wa ta'ala.

Allah's elevation above His creation.

The need to live in this live with
ones attention focused mainly on the hereafter.

An urging to maintain consciousness
of Allah (u>Al-Muraqaba) at all times.

Whatever seemingly great things man
has created on earth, whether empires, structures, weapons, etc.
are only temporary, and will be crushed to powder whenever Allah
so wills.

A glimpse into the terror of Qiyamah,
from which hearts will recoil in fear, especially hearts of the
oppressors and wrongdoers.

Allah is the one who will carry out
the judgement between all of His creation.

Allah's Attribute Of A Face

{All who are upon it shall perish.
* And there will remain the Face of Allah, full of Majesty and Honor.}
Ar-Rahman (55/27)

In this verse, Allah informs us that
all who are upon the earth shall perish, leaving only His glorious
countenance. The general rule in Arabic is that a pronoun must refer
back to the specific mention of the thing intended. In many verses
of the Qur'an, however, we find pronouns without any such reference
but where the intended meaning can be inferred from the flow of
the verses. Thus, this verse starts out All who are upon it... Although
this verse has not been preceded by any explicit mention of the
earth, it can be understood what is intended. Other examples of
this from the Qur'an are: {And you see no creature upon its back.}
(the earth). {If only, when it reached the throat...} (the soul
on its way out in death). {Verily, it throws off sparks the size
of castles} (hell-fire).

Then, Allah describes His Face saying,
full of Majesty and Honour. Full of majesty is clear. Full of honour
here could refer to Allah's honouring of His prophets, messengers,
allies and believing slaves, as He said in another verse: {And we
have honoured the sons of Adam and have carried them over the land
and the sea.} Or it could refer to His being the all-deserving of
honour, glorification, tauhid, praise and worship from all of His
believing slaves.

Allah's Face has also been mentioned
in various hadith. It has been authentically narrated that the Prophet
(saws) used to seek refuge with Allah's Face and that he used to
say: I ask you the sweetness of looking at your Face.

Al-Jahmiya rejected that Allah is
described as possessing a Face, and interpreted it as a mere relative
word such as self which merely means Allah himself. There are several
problems with this. First, this use of the word wajh (face) is totally
unknown in the Arabic language. Second, as Al-Khattabi, Al-Baihaqiy
and others have mentioned, in this verse Allah attributed the Face
to himself, and then attributed two attributes to His Face (i.e.,
full of Majesty and Honour). Since the Face itself has attributes,
it is obviously not merely Adh-Dhaat (Allah Himself).

Another erroneous interpretation
which has been claimed is that the word Face is used to mean Allah's
thawaab, i.e., the rewards which He gives to his obedient slaves.
This runs contrary to many dalils. The Prophet (saws) in a variety
of sahih hadith sought mentioned Allah's face. I seek refuge in
Your Glorious Face that You might give me shade. You are the Living
who does not die, while men and jinn die. It is unacceptable to
say that the Prophet (saws) sought refuge in something created (e.g.,
Thawaab), and so we know that the Face is an attribute of Allah,
and not something separate from Him and created by Him such as thawaab.
In another hadith, it is reported that the Prophet (saws) said:
His veil is light. If it were removed, the majesty of His Face would
burn up all that of His creation upon which His sight fell.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Allah is the All-deserving of our
praise, honour and worship.

A rejection of the claims of those
who denied this attribute of Allah or twisted the meanings of the
words to give other meanings without authority.

An urging to humbly honour Allah,
keep consciousness of Him and beware of Him.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of His Face and that He is the Living who will remain and never
die unlike His creation who must all die.

{And call not along with Allah another
deity - there is no deity but He. All shall perish except His face.
His is the Rule, and to him you shall be returned.} Al-Qasas (28/88).

The meaning of this verse is that
all the inhabitants of the earth shall perish and go to that which
Allah wishes for them and there will remain only His Glorious Countenance.
This applies to all created living beings: men, angels, jinn and
animals without exception. Of Allah's creation, non-destruction
and continued existence when all else perishes has been decreed
for eight things: (1) Al-Arsh, (2) Al-Kursiy, (3) Hell-fire, (4)Paradise,
(5) The tailbones of people, (6)Souls, (7)The Tablet, and (8) the
Pen. Thus, the meaning of All shall perish is that all things for
whom destruction has been decreed.

Note: Things described As Being
Of Allah

Those things which have been attributed
to Allah Most High via the Arabic Idhaafa, such as Baitullah (Allah's
House) or Ilmullah (Allah's knowledge) fall into two distinct categories,
very different in meaning and very important to be understood by
every Muslim:

Things which have their own separate
existence such as Allah's House, Slave of Allah, Allah's Spirit
(Ruhullah), etc. They have only been thus described by way of honouring
them and stressing their status among Allah's creation. It does
not, however, make them anything more than what they are: creations
among the creations of Allah Most High.

Attributes which have no existence
separate from Allah Most High such as Allah's Knowledge, His Life,
His Omnipotence, His Might, His Hearing, His Words, His Face, etc.
This are mentioned as being of Allah in the literal sense, i.e.,
the relation of an attribute to the Possessor of that attribute.

The same two categories exist for
things which have been described as being from him (u>minhu or
min Allah). For example {a spirit from Him}, and {And He placed
at your service all that is in the heavens and the earth, all of
that is from Him} refer to things among his creation which are only
from Him in the sense that He is their Creator, but they are not
part of Him. On the other hand, {The sending down of the Book from
Allah} describes the Qur'an as being from Allah while Allah's words
are one of His attributes, cannot be separated from Him, and have
no existence separate from Allah Most High. Again, the Prophet (saws)
sought refuge in the perfect words of Allah and, since it is impossible
that the Prophet (saws) could have sought refuge in something created
(which is Shirk!), we know that Allah's words are not other than
Allah, rather, they are one of his attributes like His Might, His
Mercy, etc.

Allah's Attribute Of Two Hands

{He said: O Iblis, what has prevented
you from prostrating to that which I have created with My Two Hands?!
Are you too proud? Or are among the high and arrogant?'} Sawd (38/75).

{Why don't the Rabbis and scholars
forbid them the uttering of sinful words and the consumption of
the forbidden? Evil indeed are their works. * And the Jews said:
'Allah's hand is tied.' May their hands be tied up and they be cursed
for that which they have said. Rather, His two hands are outstretched,
He gives out in whatever way He wishes... } Al-Ma'idah (5/63-64).

The Reality Of Allah's Two Hands

{He said, O, Iblis, what has prevented
you from prostrating to that which I have created with My Two Hands?
Have you become arrogant, or are you among the high and mighty ones?
He said, I am superior to him. You created me from fire and you
created him from clay.} Saad(38)/75-76

Allah asks the question in these
verses not seeking some knowledge or understanding (Istifhaam),
but by way of calling attention to and condemning this grave error
of understanding and action. The meaning then is: what is it that
has diverted or prevented you from prostrating, according to My
Order, to that which I have created directly with My Two Hands without
any intermediary? As has been mentioned earlier, the description
of the creation as being Allah's is to emphasize its status, not
to make it a part of Allah Most High, who is completely separate
from His creation. Other created things which have been thus described
as being Allah's include: Allah's spirit (Ruh), Allah's House, Allah's
She-Camel, and Allah's Mosques.

That fact that Allah has mentioned
his hands in the dual form is the most conclusive proof that His
hands are a reality (again, a reality unlike any known to us and
appropriate to His Greatness and Perfection) and cannot be interpreted
to some other abstract meaning not apparent in the words themselves.
This is a clear rebuttal of the position of those who have tried
to deny that Allah has any attribute called Hands and who claim
that the meaning is His Power, His Control or His Bounties. This
pointless dispute arose fairly early in the history of Islam, and
Imam Abu Hanifa has sharply condemned such interpretations in his
book Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar. In spite of this, great numbers of the followers
of this great Iman today espouse the baseless interpretations which
their Imam condemned.

Knowledge Contained In These Verses

Affirmation of the reality of the
Two Hands of Allah.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of creation.

Intellectual reasoning or analogy
are useless and only lead one astray in the face of information
and/or commands from Allah Most High.

Rejection of the position of those
who claimed abstract, non-apparent meanings attributed to Allah's
Hands in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

An indication of the high status
of Adam before Allah.

Condemnation of all disobedience
of Allah Most High.

{Why do their Rabbis and scholars
not forbid them their speaking of evil and their devouring of the
forbidden. Evil indeed are their works. * The Jews say: Allah's
hand is tied! Be their hands tied and be they cursed for that which
they have said! Nay, His Two Hands are outstretched and He gives
of His bounties as He pleases. Indeed, many of them will only be
increased in transgression and disbelief by that which has been
sent down to you from your Lord. And We have placed amongst them
enmity and hatred until the Day of Qiyamah. Every time they kindle
the fire of war, Allah extinguishes it. But they (ever) strive to
create corruption on the earth, and Allah loves not the makers of
corruption.} Al-Ma'ida(5)/63-64

In these verses, Allah informs us
about the Jews, upon whom the curse of Allah has descended until
the day of Qiyamah, telling us how they attributed miserliness to
Allah, just as they attributed poverty to Him in another incident.
(Exalted is He above that which they say!) They expressed this blasphemy
(miserliness) by saying that Allah's Hands are tied. Allah's reply
to this Be their hands tied has a number of interpretations: an
invocation against them, or information about their state. Furthermore,
it could refer to this life or to the hereafter. If it refers to
this life, it could be a reference to their own miserliness. This
interpretation is supported by actual experience with this people;
miserliness follows them as an object's shadow follows the object.
The general experience has been that no matter how wealthy one of
them becomes, they are among the most miserly and avaricious of
Allah's creation. In this life the tying of their hands could also
refer to their hands being bound in captivity. If the reference
is to the hereafter, then it is a reference to the binders (u>Al-Aghlaal)
with which the denizens of hell-fire will be bound. The word cursed
(u>La'an) as we have seen previously, means to be removed at
a distance and cast away from the mercy of Allah, in this case because
of their blasphemous utterance about Allah Most High.

Knowledge Contained In These Verses

Allah's attribute of Two Hands, which
are among the attributes of His essence (As-Sifaat Adh-Dhaatiya).

Allah's Hands cannot be rejected
or twisted to mean something else, not apparent in the words of
the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

The destruction of any nation that
neglects the ordering of what is right and the forbidding of what
is wrong. This responsibility is upon every individual in the Ummah,
but is especially burdensome upon the people of knowledge among

Condemnation of the Jews and Allah's
curse upon them because of their attributing to Him that which is
not one of His attributes.

That mere words spoken on the tongue
can bring on the curse or punishment of Allah. The Prophet (saws)
was once asked if mere words could send one to hell-fire and he
replied: And are the people cast into the fire on their faces for
anything else besides the harvests of their tongues?

Allah's curse on the Jews and that
their hands are tied -- possible meanings of this expression.

For many among Allah's creation,
the message of Islam when delivered to them will only increase them
in transgression and kufr.

The inability of the disbelievers
to wage any war against the Party of Allah. As we know from hadith,
they only overcome the Muslims when the Muslims themselves bring
about their own defeat.

Allah is to be described with the
praiseworthy attributes of which He has informed us in the Qur'an
and the Sunnah. We have no knowledge or ability to take the matter
beyond this.

The various interpretations of the
Hands of Allah as meaning His Bounties or his Power are rejected
by the Qur'an and the Sunnah. A brief summary of the falsehood of
these interpretations follows:

The term has been used in many different
ways which do not admit these interpretations: e.g. which I have
created with My Two Hands, His Two Hands are outstretched, ...the
earth is in His grip on the day of Qiyamah and the heavens are rolled
up in His Right Hand.

Allegorical meanings of this type
are never used in the dual in the Arabic language -- they only occur
in the singular or the plural. If we say that Allah's Hand is his
Power, then are we inventing two powers and two generosities of
Allah Most High??!

Thus, one who ponders the many references
to Allah's hands in the Qur'an and the Sunnah and the words of the
Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, can be left with no
doubt that they are a reality, and not an allegory for something

Affirmation Of Allah's Attributes
Of Hearing And Seeing

Allah Most High said:

{Allah has heard the statement of
she who disputed with you regarding her husband and raised her complaint
to Allah. And Allah has heard your discussion. Verily Allah is All-Hearing,
All-Seeing.} Al-Mujadilah(58)/1

{Allah has heard the statement of
those who said: Allah is poor and we are rich.} Aal-Imraan(3)/181

{Or did they imagine that We hear
not their secrets and their private discussions? On the contrary!
Our messengers are amongst them writing [everything].} Az-Zukhruf(43)/80

In these verses, Allah is described
with the attributes of hearing and seeing and that He hears and
sees with a reality of seeing which is exalted above the attributes
of any created thing and is beyond any comparability to them. This
is the belief of the Salaf (beginning generations) of this Ummah
and its Imams and is clearly indicated by the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

In the first verse: The meaning is
that Allah has heard the statements of the woman who discussed with
the Prophet (saws) about her husband. Her name is Khaula bint Tha'laba.
The story is that she raised her complaint to Allah over the weakness
of her position and the lack of any avenue at her disposal. This
was after her husband pronounced Adh-Dhihaar after many years of
marriage and the birth of many children. Aisha, may Allah be pleased
with her, said: Blessed is He who encompasses all sounds. Verily,
the woman conversed with Allah's Messenger (saws) while I was in
another corner of the house. I heard some of her words while others
were inaudible. Then Allah sent down the verse {Allah has heard...}.

Thus, no rational person can doubt
for a moment that the meaning of this verse is explicit and literal.
It can accept no non-apparent interpretation whatsoever. Rather,
it asserts the reality of Allah's hearing and that Allah Himself

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of hearing. One of His names is As-Samee'. Its meaning with respect
to Allah ta'ala is the One from whose hearing no sound whatsoever
escapes or is hidden however inaudible it is to us. The footsteps
of a tiny black ant walking on a smooth rock on a dark night is
heard by Allah ta'ala. His hearing encompasses all sounds, the secret
and the public, the near and the far. Further, these sounds do not
become confused with Allah despite the many different languages
and the many and varied sounds just as if they were to Him a single

As-Sam' (hearing or to hear) is used
with four different meanings: 1) hearing as a perception or sense
and its object is sound; 2) hearing with the meaning of comprehension
and understanding and its object is meaning; 3) hearing in the sense
of response and granting that which was asked; and 4) acceptance
and following. Examples of each follow:

1) Perception of sounds:

{Allah has heard the statements of
she who disputed with you regarding her husband...}

{Allah has heard the statement of
those who say that Allah is poor and we are rich.}

2) Understanding of meanings:

{And do not say attend us rather
say look to us and listen.}

{...We hear and we obey...}

3) Response and granting of what
was asked:

The statement in Salat: Sami'a Allah
liman hamidahu, i.e., Allah hears for he who praises Him. In a Du'a
narrated from the Prophet (saws): O Allah hear (i.e., respond) and
grant me what I have asked.

4) Acceptance and following:

{Constant listeners to lies, constant
consumers of the unlawful...}

{If they had come out with you, they
would not have increased you except in confusion and disorder and
they would have sown discord among you desiring for you calamity
and amongst you are listeners to them and Allah is fully knowledgeable
of the oppressors.} At-Tauba(9)/47

Linguistically, hearing as a perception
of sound is transitive with no preposition, hearing as comprehension
of meaning is also transitive with no preposition, hearing with
the meaning of acceptance is transitive with the preposition li
sometimes and min others, and hearing with the meaning of response
and granting of a request is also transitive with the preposition

Thus, we see that Allah possesses
hearing with which He hears all sounds and sight with which He sees
all things. We cannot fully comprehend either of these attributes
since they are unlike anything we know and we must not attempt to
do so.

Raising a complaint to Allah does
not indicate a lack of patience.

Rejection of the claims of those
who reject Allah's attribute of hearing or interpret it to mean
something other than the apparent.

The right of the Muslims to take
their problems, their legal questions and their complaints to the

Allah's hearing encompasses all sounds.

In the second verse: The occasion
of the sending down of this verse is described in that which is
narrated by Saeed ibn Jubair from Ibn Abbas:

When Allah sent down the verse: {Who
is the one who will lend Allah and goodly loan? Allah will increase
it many times over} the Jews said: O Muhammad! Your Lord has become
poor and so He asked His slaves for a loan. And so Allah sent down
the verse: {Allah has heard the statement of those who said that
Allah is poor and we are rich.}

In the rest of the verse, Allah states
that He will record this heinous statement along with their killing
of the prophets and then will say to them: {...taste the punishment
of the fire!}. Allah attributed the killing of the prophets to the
living Jews even though they did not physically take part in it
because of their acceptance of these deeds and of their perpetrators
as their forefathers and the early generations of their Ummah. Thus,
all of them shared the guilt either directly or by association.
Those who know of evil and do not try to stop it or condemn it and
speak out against it even after the fact, are equally guilty even
though they did not physically take part in the act.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of hearing in a manner appropriate to His greatness and perfection.

Proof of the resurrection and the
accountability of all for their deeds and statements.

Proof of rewards and punishments
according to ones words and deeds in this world.

That Allah neglects nothing and that
all things are recorded.

It is obligatory upon every member
of an Ummah to condemn and rebuke those who do evil and to change
it or prevent it if they are able. If they fail in this obligation,
they become deserving of punishment in this life in the form of
oppression and poverty and the punishment of Allah in the hereafter.

If the latter members of an Ummah
fail to analyse the actions of their predecessors with the measure
of the Shariah and to praise the praiseworthy and condemn the evil,
they become partners in the actions of their predecessors and equally
guilty and equally deserving of punishment.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of speech (in the rest of the verse).

The reality of the recording angels.

An example of the lowliness of the
Jews in the time of the Prophet (saws) in describing Allah with

In the third verse: The meaning of
secrets is one's discourses with himself in his mind or with another
in a hidden place. Private discussions (u>An-Najwaa) means a
discussion between companions which they conceal from others. Do
they think that any of this is hidden from Allah ta'ala? On the
contrary! Allah hears both their thoughts and their secret meetings
and the recording angels are taking down all statements or actions
which they commit. Until, on the day of Qiyamah, all find all that
they have said and done present before them and Allah oppresses
no one! {And so whosoever commits an atom's weight of good shall
see it and whosoever commits an atom's weight of evil shall see

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Allah's hearing encompasses both
the open and the secret.

Affirmation Of Allah's Seeing, Hearing,
Being With His Knowledge

{They (two) said: Our Lord, verily
we fear lest he hasten in acting against us or transgress all bounds.
* He said: Fear not (you two), verily I am with you (two) hearing
and seeing.} Taha(20)/45-46

{Have you seen he who prohibits *
a slave when he prays? * Do you see that he is on guidance? * Or
enjoins piety? * Do you see, if he rejects and turns away * Has
he not come to know that Allah sees?} Al-Alaq(96)/14

{And warn the closest among your
relatives. * And lower your wing to those believers who follow you.
* Then, if they disobey you, say: I am innocent of that which you
do. * And place your reliance on the Mighty, the Merciful. * He
who sees you when you stand * and your movements among those who
prostrate. * Verily He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.} Ash-Shu'araa(26)/214-220.

{And say: Act, for Allah will see
your actions as will His Prophet and the believers and you shall
be returned to the Knower of the hidden and the apparent who will
then inform you of all that you used to do.} At-Tauba(9)/105

In the first verse: This verse is
addressed to Musa and Harun when they were sent to confront Pharaoh.
Allah reminds them that they should not fear the superior power
of Pharaoh compared to them or fear that he may rush into attacking
them before the completion of the Da'wah and the showing of the
signs. Allah says: {hearing and seeing}, i.e., I hear what you say
and what Pharaoh says and I see your position and his position.
No element of the situation is hidden from Me. And know you (two)
that his forehead is in My hand - he can neither speak nor breathe
nor strike except with My permission and after My decree. I am with
you (two) with my protection, aid and support, so do not be concerned.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Affirmation of Al-Maa'iya Al-Khaasa,
i.e., Allah describing Himself as being with certain individuals
in particular.

A reminder to rely solely upon Allah,
the High and Great.

Affirmation of Allah's attributes
of hearing and seeing.

Affirmation of Allah's total power
and control over all that happens in His creation.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of speech.

A tribute to the lofty station of
Musa and Harun because of Allah's being with them in particular.

In the second verse: Did not this
person who tried to prevent Allah's slave from praying know that
Allah sees him and hears his words and that He will repay him for
his actions in full?! This is a very grave threat. It has been reported
that this verse was revealed about Abu Jahl when he prohibited the
Prophet (saws) from making prayer around the Ka'aba. This verse
is a clear affirmation of Allah's deity ship and other things coming
after the next paragraph.

In the third verse: Allah is the
One who sees you during the great worship that is Salat. He sees
you when you are standing and through the other motions of the prayer
- the bowing and the prostrating. Allah specifically mentioned prayer
because of its importance and because whoever maintains remembrance
during the prayer of the closeness of Allah (in His knowledge and
power) achieves concentration and humility in his Salat and performs
it very well. With this quality in his Salat, his other actions
are also rectified and he seeks aid with it in all of his affairs.
Verily, He is the Hearer of all sounds despite their many and varied
types. He is the Knower whose knowledge encompasses all the hidden
and the apparent, the present and the absent. When a Muslim maintains
his remembrance that Allah sees all that he does and hears everything
that he utters and knows of all that is in his heart, he is aided
thereby in increasing in Taqwa and moving toward the station of

Knowledge Derived From These Two

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of sight and hearing.

Affirmation of Allah's all-encompassing

A reminder to strive in remembrance
of Allah's proximity to us and to all that we do.

The importance of giving Da'wah to
those closest to you.

That there is a cut-off point in
the process of Da'wah at which point a Muslim must assert his innocence
of the disbeliever, even if he is a close relative.

A Muslim must maintain remembrance
of the absolute power of Allah and place his reliance solely in
Allah in Da'wah and all other activities.

In the fourth verse: Allah here addresses
His Prophet (saws): Say, O Muhammad, to these hypocrites: Do whatever
you wish and continue, if you like, in your falsehood, but do not
deceive yourselves that any of that will be hidden. Of necessity,
your actions will be exposed and become clear to all. Mujahid said:
This is a threat, i.e., from Allah to those who act against His
orders and a warning that their actions will be shown before Him
and to His Prophet (saws) and to the believers. This will happen
without fail on Qiyamah. Allah said: {On that day, you will be shown,
and no secret of yours will be hidden.} Furthermore, Allah may expose
it to the people in this life, as has been narrated by Imam Ahmad
traced to the Prophet (saws): Even if one of you were do to an action
in a rock which has no door and no exit, Allah would expose his
actions to the people, no matter who he was.

Anas narrates from the Prophet (saws):
Don't bother being impressed with anyone until you see that with
which his actions will be sealed. For, verily, one may act for a
long period of time doing righteous deeds which, if one were to
die in that state, would get one into paradise only to change to
do acts of evil after that. And, another may act for a long period
of time doing evil deeds which, if one were to die in that state,
would condemn one to hell-fire only to change and do acts of righteousness
after that. When Allah wishes good for his slave, He causes him
to act before his death. They asked the Prophet (saws): O Messenger
of Allah, how does He cause them to act? The Prophet (saws) answered:
He causes him to do some righteous act and then takes him in death
therein. Narrated by Imam Ahmad.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Affirmation that Allah sees all that
we do.

Affirmation of the reality of the
resurrection and the repayment of all according to their actions.

Affirmation of Allah's all-encompassing

Affirmation that Allah does not forget
or neglect anything whatsoever.

Allah Schemes And Lays Snares

{The thunder exalts His praises and
the angels out of fear of Him. And He sends the thunderbolts, striking
with them whomever He pleases. Yet they dispute about Allah, and
He is mighty in overpowering strength.} Ar-Ra'd(13)/13

{And they schemed and plotted and
Allah schemed and Allah is the best of schemers.} Aal Imraan(3)/54

{They planned a scheme of deception
and We planned a scheme of deception but they were unaware of it.}

{As for them, they are planning a
scheme of deception * And I am planning a scheme of deception. *
Therefore do not be impatient with regard to the disbelievers and
grant them a delay for a little while.} At-Tariq(86)/15/17

In these verses is an affirmation
of Allah's attributes and His description of Himself with Al-Makr
(scheming to dupe or deceive), Al-Kaid (plotting to overcome and
snare) and Al-Mumaahala or Al-Mihaal (overpowering strength or escape-proof
snares). These are among Allah's attributes of action which apply
to Allah in a manner and a meaning appropriate to His greatness
and perfection. Ali said: ...mighty in seizing; Ibn Abbas said:
...mighty in overpowering strength; Mujahid said: ...mighty in strength;
Abu Ubaida said: ...mighty in punishment and it has been said: ...mighty
in scheming. Al-Mumaahala and Al-Mihaal (the word actually used
in the verse) mean scheming and overcoming. One of the scholars
of Tafsir said: The meaning is that He is mighty in scheming and
snaring His enemies -- coming to them with their destruction from
an unexpected direction.

There is an importance between 1)
those attributes of Allah which come together by way of names such
as Ar-Rahman Ar-Raheem or As-Samee' Al-'Aleem and 2) those which
come together in the Idhaafa construction such as {They seek to
deceive Allah, but He is their deceiver} and {And thus the seizing
of your Lord when he takes a town engaged in oppression: verily
His seizing is painful and harsh.} and {And He is mighty in overpowering

In the first case, each of Allah's
names indicates one of His attributes (mercy, hearing, knowledge)
and there is a corresponding verb derived from that name of Allah
(Allah has mercy, hears, knows, etc.) which is also applicable to
Allah ta'ala.

In the second case, we apply these
words to Allah only in the Idhaafa form in which they have come
in the Qur'an or as a verb (e.g., Allah deceives the hypocrites,
Allah seizes those who disobey Him and seizes the oppressors). We
do not, however, derive a name from such constructions. Thus the
deceiver, the seizer and the schemer are not among the names of
Allah ta'ala.

Similarly, those actions which have
come in the Qur'an in the verb form, are applied to Allah as they
have come -- we do not derive names for Allah from them, unless
these are evidenced in other verses or hadith. For example, Allah
says in many verses that he schemed against those who schemed against
Him, yet we do not refer to Allah with the name of the schemer.

As for the reason for these seemingly
unpraiseworthy actions of Allah, it is said that this is in the
sense of reciprocation as in the verse: {And the reward of evil
is evil like unto it} and {And if you are dealt a blow, deal a blow
like the one that was dealt to you}. The meaning of scheming (Al-Makr)
is giving one appearance while concealing another reality in order
to achieve one's goal. It can be divided into two types: praiseworthy
and blameworthy. The blameworthy scheme is the one done to one not
deserving of it while the praiseworthy scheme is the one done to
one who deserves it as a just punishment. This latter is the only
one attributed to Allah and it indicates no blameworthy trait or
deficiency. Of the praiseworthy type, then is Allah's scheming to
deceive those who schemed to deceive Him as an appropriate response
to their actions and a just reward of the same nature as their transgression.
Precisely the same analysis applies to laying snares (u>Al-Kaid):
He only does the praiseworthy of that action out of His Justice
and Wisdom.

The meaning of scheming (Al-Makr)
is sudden overtaking and seizing at an unexpected moment, as Allah
said elsewhere: {We will lead them (further) astray from a direction
which they know not.} So, when Allah uses words like scheming and
ensnaring in speaking about Himself, He is applying verbs to His
actions. This area is much wider than Allah's names. Thus, Allah
attributed many actions to Himself, but did not take names corresponding
to each of these verbs. He described Himself as intending (Araada)
and wanting (Shaa'a) but did not take the names of intender (Mureed)
or wanter (Shaa'ee). Those who derived a name for Allah from every
verb which He attributed to Himself have made a serious error. They
came up with over 1000 names, although the hadith numbers them at

Also, Allah ta'ala sometimes informs
us about himself with nouns but which are not among His names and
so this area too is wider than His glorious Names. For example,
in the Qur'an Allah refers to Himself as a thing (Shai'), etc. but
did not take this as a name.

Thus, it is upon every Muslim to
exercise utmost caution in determining the names with which Allah
has named Himself and sticking to these names as found in the revelation,
avoiding applying words to Allah which He did not apply to Himself
except those phrases which are equivalent in meaning to the names
with which Allah has named himself. In such case, the words must
be carefully defined, especially with respect to those attributes
which contain both praiseworthy and blameworthy potential meanings.
Examples of this are found in the Qur'an: {...Doer of whatever He
wishes} and {The product of Allah who perfected all things}. Doer
and Producer are not among Allah's glorious names.

Review Of Concepts

The three actions attributed to Allah
in these verses (scheming, ensnaring or trapping and overpowering)
are among Allah's attributes of action, but are not among His glorious

Attributes of Allah in the Qur'an
which are also among His Glorious names.

Other nouns attributed to Allah in
the Qur'an in Idhaafa constructions which are not among His glorious

Verbs (actions) which Allah attributes
to Himself in the Qur'an but from which no derivative name has been
given to us.

Such verbs are many more than Allah's
names and to derive names from them is without basis does not always
yield praiseworthy names.

The error of some modern scholars
who derived a name for Allah from every such verb.

Affirmation Of Allah's Attributes
Of Forbearance, Forgiveness, Capability And Might

{Allah does not like evil to be made
open in public speech, except for he who has been oppressed and
Allah is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. * Whether you show good
openly or conceal it or pardon evil, verily Allah is ever Forbearing,
fully Capable.} An-Nisaa(4)/148-149

In this verse: Allah informs us that
the doers of good, whether secretly or openly, and those who are
forbearing and forgiving with people are among those to whom He
will be good. He will reward them in a fashion similar to their
actions in this life, forgiving their bad deeds. One of Allah's
attributes is Forgiveness and Forbearance, and He is the fully capable
who gives great rewards upon little action.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Allah's all-encompassing Knowledge.

The Deity ship of Allah ta'ala.

The total Capability of Allah over
all things.

Allah's great generosity and kindness.

A reminder to study and contemplate
Allah's Glorious Names.

Allah's attribute of Forbearance
(Al-'Afw) is close in meaning to His attribute of The Forgiving
(Al-Ghafoor), but is wider and stronger in meaning. Forgiveness
is based on covering up or hiding, while Forbearance is based on
the concept of wiping something out, which is a stronger concept.

Then, since the most complete forbearance
is that granted in spite of a complete capability hold to account
and to avenge, Allah paired His attribute of Forbearance with His
attribute of Al-Qadeer, i.e., the One fully capable of all things.

A call to the character of forbearance
and graciousness to others.

That forbearance and forgiveness
of others is a cause of Allah's forbearance and forgiveness.

Rewards are of like nature to actions.

A rejection of the position of Al-Jabriya,
who say that humans possess no ability to act, and that actions
are attributed to them only in an allegorical sense.

Open and public actions are all the
same to Allah.

{Let not those endowed with plenty
and ample means among you resolve by oath against giving to their
relatives, to the poor and to those who make Hijra in the path of
Allah. And let them forebear and forgive. Do you not wish that Allah
should forgive you? And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.} An-Nur(24)/22

In this verse: Forbearance here means
to overlook, conceal and forgive. In this verse, Allah urges the
forgiving and overlooking of wrongdoing or mistreatment received
at the hands of others. Then, Allah mentions a great motivator,
saying: {Do you not wish that Allah should forgive you?} i.e., because
of your forbearance and forgiveness toward those who did some evil
to you in this life. {And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.} i.e., Allah
is very great in forgiveness and mercy toward His slaves in spite
of their many sins and transgressions.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

An order to be forbearing toward
those who mistreat us and to be of good character.

Forbearance in this life is a cause
of Allah's forgiveness in the next.

Allah's attribute of Forgiving (Al-Maghfira).

Affirmation that humans indeed act
and are the authors of their actions.

Helping of needy relatives is not
to be stopped because of their disobedience to Allah.

An order not to swear oaths not to
do some act of good. Some scholars said: This is the most hopeful
verse in the Qur'an since Allah advised us to be kind even to a

Evidence that Allah's names are derived
from attributes and meanings attributable to Allah Most High and
are thus names and attributes at the same time. This is why they
are called Al-Asmaa' Al-Husnaa (roughly: Glorious Names).

{They say, If we return to Madina,
the mightier among us will surely drive out the more lowly. And
to Allah belongs all might and to His Messenger and to the believers,
but the hypocrites do not know.} Al-Munafiqoon(63)/8

In this verse: The second half of
this verse lays out a response to the first part, the abomination
spoken by the hypocrites. When they said {...the mightier among
us will surely drive out the more lowly...}, they saw themselves
as the mightier, i.e., in numbers and arms. They said this whereas
the reality is that anyone with any kind of sense knows that all
strength and victory belongs to Allah alone and to those upon whom
He bestows it among His Messengers and righteous ones.

Allah's might is His total Power
and Control over his enemies. The might of His Prophet (saws) is
the raising of Allah's Din above over all other ways. Finally, the
might of the believers is Allah's helping them to victory over their

Thus, every believer possesses might
in proportion to his share of Iman and the realities of Iman. Any
time their is a decrease in might and stature, there is a corresponding
decrease in the realities of Iman in knowledge and belief, openly
and in secret. The believer is mighty, high in stature, aided by
Allah and victorious wherever he is, even if all the peoples of
the world join against him as long as he maintains the realities
of Iman. Whoever suffers decrease in his Iman suffers also a decrease
in his might and victories.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of Might. This is one of His attributes of Essence. Allah's attribute
of Al-'Izza includes three meanings, all meanings of the word in

Strength, as in His names Al-Qawiyy
and Al-Mateen

Self-Sufficiency, as in His name
Al-Ghaniyy. Allah is the Self-Sufficient and not in need of anything
from His slaves.

Power and Control over all things.

He (Iblis) said: O my Lord, then
give me respite until they day they are raised. * He said: Respite
then is granted thee... * Till the day of the time appointed. *
He said: Then, by Your Might, I will lead them into error - all
of them... * Except for Your sincere and devoted slaves among them.
* He said: The truth then, and the truth I speak... * I will fill
the hell-fire with you and with those among them who follow you
all together.} Saad(38)/79/85

It is allowed to swear an oath by
Allah's attributes.

Allah's attributes are not created
and are inseparable from Him. (I seek refuge in Allah's Might and

Proof that the Jinn speak.

A Rebuttal To Those Who Reject The

There are many in our time who reject
the Jinn. Most of them rely in their arguments on their claim that
the only way to know the existence of something is through seeing
or hearing and they have not been able to see or hear the Jinn.
However, anyone's inability to perceive the Jinn with their hearing,
sight or any other sensory perception is no evidence of their non-existence
logically and much less as far as the authoritative texts are concerned.

As for logic and reason, there is
nothing to negate the possibility of a living being which cannot
be seen except with the recently-invented microscope. Microbes are
living things created by Allah found almost everywhere, including
in the various layers of the atmosphere, but it is not possible
to see them. Furthermore, anyone who rejects the existence of all
that cannot be perceived by human senses is required by their claim
to reject the spirit since it cannot be seen. Allah said: {They
ask you about Ar-Ruh. Say: Ar-Ruh is Allah's affair, and you have
not been given knowledge except a small amount.} Further, these
people must reject the angels, heaven and hell, intelligence, anger
and anything else which cannot be seen or perceived.

As for textual evidence, it is indeed
plentiful both in the Qur'an and in the Sunnah. Allah said:

{I have not created Jinn and humans
except that they may worship Me.}

{Say: It has been communicated to
me that a group of Jinn listened and said: Verily we have heard
a wondrous Reading. It guides to correctness of conduct, we have
believed in it and shall associated no one with our Lord.}

{And when We directed to you a group
among the Jinn; they listened to the Qur'an. When they came to it
they said Pay attention and when it was over they turned to their
people as warners.}

{And We have bred for hell-fire many
of the Jinn and the humans. They have hearts with which they do
not understand, eyes with which they do not see and ears with which
they do not hear.}

{And, on the day when We assemble
them all: O, you ranks of the Jinn, you have done much (misleading)
towards the humans. And their allies among the humans said: Our
Lord, we have taken pleasure in one another.}

{O, you ranks of Jinn and humans,
did not messengers come to you from amongst you reporting to you
My signs (Ayat)?}

Verily he sees you, he and his people,
from whence you cannot see them.}

{And he gathered for Sulaiman his
forces from among the Jinn and the humans.}

{Say: If all of the humans and all
of the Jinn got together to bring forth something like this Qur'an,
they could never bring something like it.}

Also, from the Sunnah, there are
very many proofs, too many to mention here. Among them:

A mischievous and powerful one among
the Jinn came to me last night attempting to disrupt my prayer.
Allah gave me power over him. I wished to tie him to one of the
pillars of the masjid so that you could look at him in the morning.
Then, I remembered the statement of my brother Sulaiman: My Lord,
forgive me and give me a dominion not befitting to anyone who comes
after me.}

Safiya, the wife of the Prophet (saws)
once came to visit him while he was in I'tikaaf. When she was ready
to leave, he escorted her to the door of the masjid, whereupon two
of the Ansaar saw them and greeted him. Then he said: Take it easy,
she is Safiya bint Huyayy. They said: Subhaana Allah O Messenger
of Allah! and were quite shocked. Then, the Prophet (saws) said:
Verily Shaitaan reaches of a person that which is reached by his
blood and I feared that he may put something into your hearts.

This last hadith is clear and explicit
in stating that Sheytan can enter the human body and move through
it as blood moves through it invisibly. Sheytan has committed himself
to various pursuits in his avowed and unending enmity to humans:

{I will lead them astray, I will
arouse their hopes, and I will order them so that they clip the
ears of the cattle and they will change the creation of Allah.}

{I will sit (waiting) for them on
Your straight path. Then, I will approach them from the front, from
the back, from the right and from the left and most of them You
will not find grateful.}

Shaitaan is an open and avowed enemy.
Allah detailed that which Sheytan orders us to do elsewhere and
listed three things:

1) As-Soo': (evil) which includes
all acts of disobedience both major and minor and whether acts of
the heart or the body.

2) Al-Fahshaa': (obscenity) which
are the more abominable and major sins such as fornication, killing
and dealing in interest.

3) Wa an taqoolu 'alaa Allah maa
laa ta'lamoon: (...and to say about Allah that which you know not)
this is of course the greatest sin and is the starting point of
Shaitaan's efforts to lead humans into Shirk.

Very many other hadith prove the
existence of this other creation of Allah known as the Jinn.

There is no child born that is not
contaminated by Sheytan except for the son of Maryam and his mother.

There is no one among you who has
not been assigned one of the Jinn. The companions asked: Even you?
The Prophet (saws) answered: Even me, but Allah aided me over him
and he became Muslim and only orders me to do that which is good.

Also, the well-known hadith of Abu
Hurayrah in Sahih Al-Bukhari about the Shaitaan (i.e., evil jinn)
who came to him repeatedly while he was guarding the food of Zakat
and who, on the third night taught him to recite Ayat Al-Kursiy
before retiring to protect him from Shayateen!

Verily, these houses have occupants.
When you see one of them, order them to leave thrice. Then, if they
leave fine, otherwise kill them for they are disbelievers. Now go
and bury your companion.

When the call to prayer is issued,
Shaytan turns and runs passing gas so as not to hear the Adhaan.
When the Adhaan is over he returns until the Iqama is issued, at
which time he runs again. When the Iqama is over he returns to put
suggestions between a Muslim and his self saying: 'Remember such-and-such'
about something that the Muslim had not even thought of, until a
Muslim reaches a state of not knowing how many (rakaats) he has

Shaytan ties three knots at the back
of your head when you sleep chanting over each one You have a long
night, now sleep. When you wake up and mention Allah one knot is
released. If you perform Wudhuu', a second knot is released. And,
if you pray all three knots are released. You will then wake up
in the morning energetic and with a clean heart. Otherwise, you
will wake up with an unclean heart and lazy.

Do not clean yourselves with manure
nor with bones for it is the food of your brothers among the Jinn.

It has been reported in authentic
hadith that the Jinn eat and drink. And we have been ordered to
eat only with our right hand and drink with it and give with it
and take with it because Shaytan does all of these things with his
left. None of this is in need of any explanation or interpretation.
Thus no one can reject the reality of the Jinn except one possessed
of no reason, one who has slipped completely out of the Din of Islam
because he is attributing lies to Allah, his Prophet and the consensus
of the Muslim Ummah from its East to its West. And Allah Most High
knows best.

Negation And Affirmation

{Blessed is the name of your Lord,
Possessor of majesty and honour.} Ar-Rahman(55)/78

In this verse: The meaning here is
how exalted are His names and how great and blessed are His attributes.
Then, Allah mentions his attribute of Al-Jalaal or majesty and greatness.
As for Allah's using the word Tabaarak (Blessed is...), this word
has occurred in many places in the Qur'an. In each of these places
is a mention of Allah's Majesty, Greatness, or some of His actions
which point to His Lordship, His Deity ship or His Wisdom, or any
of His attributes of perfection such as sending down the Qur'an,
creation of all creatures, placing stars in the heavens, His uniqueness
in sovereignty, and his total power over all things. This attribute
of Tabaaruk or Blessedness is on of Allah's attributes of His essence.
Evidence of this is the fact that it is connected to Allah'a name.
Al-Baraka, or blessing, is of two types. The first type of Baraka
is an action of Allah ta'ala as in the phrase Baaraka Allahu feeka.
This verb is transitive with no preposition, with Fiy and with 'Alaa.
The receiver of this Baraka is called Mubaarak.

The second type of Baraka is one
of Allah's attributes of essence and is attributed to Him as are
His attributes of Mercy, Might, etc. From this comes the expression
Tabaaraka Allahu and for this reason this word cannot be applied
to any other than Allah. He is Al-Mubaarik (the Granter of Baraka),
while His slaves and His Prophets are Mubaarak (receivers of Baraka)
as Isa said: {...and He made me Mubaarakan}.

{Lord of the heavens and the earth
and all that is between them: so worship Him and be constant and
patient in His worship. Do you know of any namesake of Him?}

Worship (u>Ibada) in Arabic means
servitude and humility. Ibn Taimiya has defined it as: A noun which
denotes the totality of all human statements and actions, both external
and internal, which please Allah ta'ala. The concept of namesake
(Samiyy) here means someone similar or comparable. The word so (the
particle Fa in Arabic) denotes causality since Allah's being Lord
of the Worlds demands that he be worshipped.

The meaning then is: Once you know
that He is in total control of all that is in the heavens and the
earth and all that is between them, submit to Him and worship Him,
being steadfast and constant with the difficulties and hardships
involved therein. The question in this verse has the meaning of
negation, i.e., You do not know of any namesake of Allah and this
demands the worship of Him since He is the grantor of all sustenance
and provision both the great and the small.

Thus, it is a must to exalt His majesty
to the maximum by acknowledging His Lordship, submitting to His
rule and dedicating all worship to Him alone without partner. The
meaning is not Do you find any who call themselves by His names?
since some of His names can be applied to others. However, their
meanings when applied to Allah ta'ala are of course not the same
as their meanings when applied to others.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Lordship and Unicity of Allah.

An order to be patient and steadfast
in worship of Allah.

Rejection of the possibility of anything
similar or comparable to Allah ta'ala.

An order to exalt Allah and to submit
to His authority and to dedicate all worship solely to Him and the
forbiddance of directing any worship to others.

Allah's great compassion toward His
slaves in that He has directed us and urged us to the worship of
Him alone, which is our only salvation from eternal torment.

{Say: He is Allah, One. * Allah the
Self-Subsisting the Eternal. * He has not given birth nor was He
born. * And there is no one whatsoever like unto Him.} Al-Ikhlas

The meaning of the last verse of
this short sura is that there is absolutely no one and nothing at
all comparable to Allah in His essence, His names or His attributes.
This meaning includes:

Rejection anything similar to Allah

Rejection of the position of all
who hold anything or anyone similar to Allah in any of His names,
His attributes or His Actions.

Rejection of the claims of those
who attribute to Allah any spouse or offspring.

{The One who made the earth your
couch, made the heavens as your shelter, sent down the rain from
the sky, then brought forth therewith produce and sustenance for
you. Then do not set up equals to Allah even though you know (the
truth).} Al-Baqarah(2)/22

This verse (along with the previous
one) includes the call to worship of Allah alone in two ways: (1)
citing the clear evidence of Allah's creation of us, the heavens,
the earth and the rain; and (2) mentioning the obvious rights He
has over us and our great obligations toward Him because of His
great beneficence toward us and his provision of our every need.
Starting in the previous verse, Allah mentions His creation of His
addressees and of their forefathers, since the Creator is deserving
of worship and obedience. Then, He goes on to mention the graces
He has bestowed on us all by making the earth and the atmosphere
inhabitable and creating the water cycle and the rain to bring forth
that which sustains us, showing us His right to be shown obedience
and gratitude.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Evidence that man is created with
an instinctual knowledge and acceptance of Allah ta'ala.

Rejection of all direct comparisons
between Allah and his creation.

Prohibition of Shirk.

Affirmation of Allah's Deity ship.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of creation.

Allah's great compassion toward His

Proof Of The Impossibility Of The
Existence Of A Second Diety

{Allah has not taken on a son nor
is there any deity along with Him. If this were so, each deity would
take away that which it had created and one would have overpowered
the other. Exalted is Allah and free of that which they attribute
to Him! * Knower of the unseen and the apparent, and High is He
above that which they associate with Him.} Al-Mu'minoon(23)/91-92

In these verses: Allah negates from
Himself the possibility of His having any son or associate in His
dominion, in His acting and decreeing and in the worship of Him.
Then, after informing us of the non-existence of any deity besides
Himself, Allah makes this very clear with an easily understood argument:
{If this were so, each deity would take away that which it had created...},
i.e., each one would have taken control over its share of the creation
and would not accept that any portion of its creation or of its
beneficence be attributed to the other. Further, each would strive
to prevent the other from gaining any control over its portion of
the creation.

This is clearly impossible since
it means opposition, separation and disharmony between portions
of the creation. However, it is visibly apparent that the universe
is systematic, organized and in harmony. All of the upper and lower
realms are bound together in the ultimate manifestation of perfection
and harmony and You cannot see in the creation of Allah any discrepancy.

Then, Allah says {...and one would
have overpowered the other}, i.e., the stronger of the two would
have overcome the weaker and dominated him, taking away his dominion
as is the custom of kings in this world. Clearly, they cannot both
be the stronger, and so this one who dominated and overcame the
other is the only one who could rightfully be a deity. The philosophers
mentioned this argument and referred to it as the proof of mutual
impossibility: Let us posit two or more creators. Then one of them
wished for a certain object to move but the other wished for it
to remain still. It is clearly impossible for both of them to accomplish
their wish. This impossibility only arises because of the imagined
multiplicity of deities. If on the other hand, one is able to accomplish
his wish, then the other of necessity has been overcome. In this
case, the first one is clearly the deity, since the deity cannot
be defeated or overcome.

Ibn Taimia said (elsewhere): Whatever
you choose to contemplate in creation, you will find it to be dependent
on something else. This shows clearly that all that we can see in
this world is strictly dependent and does not have any attributes
of the Deity. Rather, each is in need of the creator of the other
things it needs in this world. This chain continues all the way
to the ultimate dependence of all creation on Allah, the Creator
of all things. It is not possible for there to be two deities independent
of each other, with their respective creations independent of the
creation of the other, since as we have seen, this demands the joining
of mutually exclusive opposites. It is also impossible that they
could be in cooperation as partners as is the case with the creation,
since this implies weakness and need.

Allah closes the first verse saying:
{Exalted is Allah and free of that which they attribute to Him!},
declaring His freedom of any son or associate and from all the other
things with which the enemies of the prophets described Him. Next,
Allah says {Knower of the unseen and the apparent, and High is He
above that which they associate with Him.}. In this verse, Allah
draws our attention to the greatness of His divine attributes with
some examples of His perfection, informing us that He is the Knower
of that which is hidden from His creation and of that which they
see. His knowledge encompasses all things: which must be, which
may be, the impossible, the past, the present and the future. The
implication of this verse applies to those who attributed to Allah
a son or associate. They are mistaken and have spoken without knowledge.
He (Allah) is the one who knows all things, both the apparent and
the hidden, nothing whatsoever is hidden from Him, and He is the
one who has rejected this allegations. His word is the truth and
not theirs. {High is He above that which they associate with Him.}!

The unseen is divided into two categories.
The first is the unseen which no one knows except Allah ta'ala and
which is hidden entirely from His creation. Allah said: {Say: No
one in the heavens and the earth knows the unseen except Allah}.
The second is that which is unseen with respect to some of Allah's
creation such as men and jinns but not to others. Such things are
part of the unseen for those from which they are hidden, but not
for those who see or witness it.

Knowledge Contained In These Verses

Rejection of any son ascribed to
Allah ta'ala and a rejection of all claims to the contrary (Christians,
Jews and Arab Associationists).

Affirmation of the tauhid of Lordship
(Rububiya) of Allah Most High.

Rejection of all claims of the existence
of another deity.

Affirmation of Allah's attribute
of knowledge.

Allah alone possesses knowledge of
the unseen.

Allah alone creates and provides
all sustenance.

{Say: That which my Lord has forbidden
is none other than obscene and major sin (u>Al-Fawaahish), both
the open and the secret; sin (Al-Ithm) and transgression (u>Al-Baghy)
without any right; that you should associate with Allah that for
which he sent no authority; and that you should say about Allah
that which you know not.} Al-A'raaf(7)/31

Al-Fawaahish means those acts whose
sinfulness is very great. This includes the Kabaa'ir (major sins)
whose sinfulness has reached the level of obscenity such as fornication,
homosexuality, arrogance, pride and hypocrisy. Al-Ithm means all
that brings on humiliation and includes all acts of disobedience
to Allah ta'ala. Al-Baghy without right means on the rights of the
people in their blood, their property and their self-esteem without
that being a legal act of punishment or retribution. To associate
others with Allah is to beseech Allah but to also beseech others
besides Allah.

In this verse we find the five forbidden
things about which all of the prophets, all of the revealed books
and all of the divine laws are in agreement. Speaking about Allah
without knowledge is the basis of all Shirk, since every Mushrik
speaks about Allah without knowledge. However, it is broader and
more general than the concept of Shirk. All speaking about Allah
without knowledge is forbidden and is transgression, but only some
of it reaches the level of Shirk. Lesser deviations and Bida'h involving
speaking about Allah without knowledge are also forbidden by this

Scholars of Tafsir have analysed
the five areas of criminality as follows:

Crimes of man against himself; and
these are Al-Fawaahish.

Crimes against intelligence and reason,
and these are Al-Ithm.

Crimes against others and their rights
of life, property and self-esteem, and these are Al-Baghy.

Crimes against the Din of Allah which
is two types: the first is slander against the Tauhid of Allah ta'ala
which is alluded to in the verse as associating others with Allah.

And the second type is transgressing
against the Din with the spoken word, i.e., saying about Allah that
which you do not know.

Ibn Al-Qayyim said: The basis of
all disobedience both major and minor is three things: (1) for the
heart to become obsessed with other than Allah and (2) obedience
to the power of anger and (3) obedience to the power of lusts and
desires. These three are Shirk, Dhulm (oppression), and Al-Fawaahish
(major sins). The maximum of obsession of the heart with other than
Allah is Shirk, the maximum of obeying one's anger is murder, and
of obeying ones desires is fornication. That is why Allah joined
these three concepts in the verse: {Those who do not call on others
besides Allah, do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden except
with right and do not commit fornication.}

Man oppresses himself when he neglects
that which is to his benefit and engages in the detrimental. All
that Allah has ordered us to do is that which benefits us and all
that He has forbidden is that which is to our detriment. Oppression
of others means withholding what is due to him or transgressing
on any of his rights.

Knowledge Contained In This Verse

Major and minor sins are forbidden,
both the open and the secret.

Transgression on the rights of others
is forbidden; rightful retributions and punishments according to
the Shariah, however, are lawful.

Forbiddance of associating others
with Allah, and that the reason for that is that Allah has sent
no authority.

It is forbidden to speak about Allah
without knowledge. The relevance of this to a book about Tauhid
is that this is precisely the error of those who differed about
Allah's glorious names and attributes.

Forbiddances and permissions come
only from Allah Most High. (This is the tauhid of Deityship or Uluhiya.)

Allah's Shariah is complete and includes
all that is needed by human society.

Forbiddance of dealing in interest,
since it falls in the category of Al-Fawaahish.

The great sanctity of individual
rights in Islam and the forbiddance of transgressing on the rights
of Muslims except for legal actions in their bodies, their property
or their self-esteem.

An urging to do all that Allah has
ordered and avoid all that He has forbidden for our own benefit

To speak about Allah without knowledge
is equivalent to or greater than Shirk and the other forbidden things
mentioned in the verse.

Any society which does not forbid
itself the five areas of criminality will be filled with corruption,
oppression and moral decay.

Allah's Shariah is based on our benefit
-- there is not possible benefit to Allah in our benefit. All obedience
to Allah contributes to As-Salah in our individual and collective
lives just as all disobedience to Allah contributes to Al-Fasaad
in our lives and our environment.

An implied order to seek knowledge
of Islam to the extent of our abilities.

Condemnation of ignorance.

Allah has not neglected his creation,
but has provided them with orders and forbiddances which would rectify
their situation if followed.

That people make decisions and act
-- otherwise there would be no meaning to orders and forbiddances.

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